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Surah 90: The City

In this blog, I am going to provide an exegesis of the Ninetieth Surah of the Koran. Being a Christian, I bring my Christian background to the text. So, I understand it in probably a different way than many Muslims do. Here are three different translations of this chapter in the Koran. The chapter is really quite short — only 20 short verses.

1 I swear by this city, Makkah –
2 And you, [O Muhammad], are free of restriction in this city –
3 And [by] the father and that which was born [of him],
4 We have certainly created man into hardship.
5 Does he think that never will anyone overcome him?
6 He says, “I have spent wealth in abundance.”
7 Does he think that no one has seen him?
8 Have We not made for him two eyes?
9 And a tongue and two lips?
10 And have shown him the two ways?
11 But he has not broken through the difficult pass.
12 And what can make you know what is [breaking through] the difficult pass?
13 It is the freeing of a slave
14 Or feeding on a day of severe hunger
15 An orphan of near relationship
16 Or a needy person in misery
17 And then being among those who believed and advised one another to patience and advised one another to compassion.
18 Those are the companions of the right.
19 But they who disbelieved in Our signs – those are the companions of the left.
20 Over them will be fire closed in.
(Koran 90, Sahih International)

1 Nay, I swear by this city –
2 And thou art an indweller of this city –
3 And the Begetter and That Which He begat,
4 We verily have created man in an atmosphere:
5 Thinketh he that none hath power over him?
6 And he saith: I have destroyed vast wealth:
7 Thinketh he that none beholdeth him?
8 Did We not assign unto him two eyes
9 And a tongue and two lips,
10 And guide him to the parting of the mountain ways?
11 But he hath not attempted the Ascent –
12 Ah, what will convey unto thee what the Ascent is! –
13 (It is) to free a slave,
14 And to feed in the day of hunger.
15 An orphan near of kin,
16 Or some poor wretch in misery,
17 And to be of those who believe and exhort one another to perseverance and exhort one another to pity.
18 Their place will be on the right hand.
19 But those who disbelieve Our revelations, their place will be on the left hand.
20 Fire will be an awning over them.
(Koran 90, Pickthall)

1 Nay! I swear by this city–
2 And you shall be made free from obligation in this city–
3 And the Begetter and Whom He begot.
4 Certainly We have created man to be in distress.
5 Does he think that no one has power over him?
6 He shall say: I have wasted much wealth.
7 Does he think that no one sees him?
8 Have We not given him two eyes,
9 And a tongue and two lips,
10 And pointed out to him the two conspicuous ways?
11 But he would not attempt the uphill road,
12 And what will make you comprehend what the uphill road is?
13 (It is) the setting free of a slave,
14 Or the giving of food in a day of hunger
15 To an orphan, having relationship,
16 Or to the poor man lying in the dust.
17 Then he is of those who believe and charge one another to show patience, and charge one another to show compassion.
18 These are the people of the right hand.
19 And (as for) those who disbelieve in our communications, they are the people of the left hand.
20 On them is fire closed over.
(Koran 90, Shakir)

verse 1 I swear — the Holy Spirit swears. The Holy Spirit swears and not Muhammad. Muhammad commanded people not to swear oaths.

And they swear by Allah their strongest oaths that if you ordered them, they would go forth [in Allah ‘s cause]. Say, “Do not swear. [Such] obedience is known. Indeed, Allah is Acquainted with that which you do.” (Koran 24:53, Sahih International)

Jesus, likewise, commanded people not to swear oaths.

“Again you have heard that it was said to those of old, ‘You shall not swear falsely, but shall perform your oaths to the Lord.’  But I say to you, do not swear at all: neither by heaven, for it is God’s throne; nor by the earth, for it is His footstool; nor by Jerusalem, for it is the city of the great King. Nor shall you swear by your head, because you cannot make one hair white or black. But let your ‘Yes’ be ‘Yes,’ and your ‘No,’ ‘No.’ For whatever is more than these is from the evil one.” (Matthew 5:33-37, NKJV)

The Old Testament laws regarding swearing oaths in the Lord’s name were abrogated by Jesus. The Koran talks about abrogation in Koran 2:106 and 16:101.

St. James, who is Jesus’ stepbrother or cousin, also said not to swear oaths.

But above all, my brethren, do not swear, either by heaven or by earth or with any other oath. But let your “Yes” be “Yes,” and your “No,” “No,” lest you fall into judgment. (James 5:12, NKJV)

Many Church Fathers who lived before Muhammad wrote against the practice of swearing oaths.

But if thou art able to say that Christ bade us to use oaths, or that Christ did not punish the doing of this, show me, and I am persuaded. But if He forbids it with so much care, and takes so much thought about the matter as to class him who takes an oath with the Evil One [for whatsoever is more than these, namely, than yea and nay, saith He, is of the Devil (Matthew 5:37)], why dost thou bring this person and that person forward? (Instructions to Catechumens, First Instruction, chapter 5, by St. John Chrysostom)

For it is indeed a snare of Satan, this swearing. (Homilies on the Acts of the Apostles, Homily XIII, by St. John Chrysostom)

For the oath of God is the assurance of a promise. Man is justly forbidden to swear: lest by the habit of swearing, since a man may be deceived, he fall into perjury. God alone swears securely, because He alone is infallible. (On the Psalms, Psalm LXXXIX, by Blessed Augustine of Hippo)

Swearing is absolutely forbidden, and it is only reasonable that the oath which tends to evil should be condemned. (Canon XXIX, Letter CXIX, by St. Basil the Great)

Therefore, Muhammad, who is a good example (Koran 33:21), would not swear an oath. God the Holy Spirit swears by “this city.” In Sahih International’s translation it says “by this city, Makkah.” However, Makkah does not appear in the Arabic text of the Koran. So, the city’s name is not mentioned.

The Holy Spirit swears by the city of the New Jerusalem in heaven and by the Father (“the begetter”) and the Son (“Whom He begot”). (See verse 3.) All three hypostases of the Deity are equal in glory, honor, power, etc. The Father is greater than the Son in respect to His humanity (John 14:28), but equal to the Son in respect to His Divinity. (John 5:18,23) Each hypostasis of the Deity is God in His entirety, but there are not three gods. There is only one God. God, therefore, swears by the city of the New Jerusalem in heaven and by Himself in this Surah because there is no one greater.

For when God made a promise to Abraham, because He could swear by no one greater, He swore by Himself, saying, “Surely blessing I will bless you, and multiplying I will multiply you.” And so, after he had patiently endured, he obtained the promise. For men indeed swear by the greater, and an oath for confirmation is for them an end of all dispute. (Hebrews 6:13-16, NKJV)

verse 2

Sahih International: And you, [O Muhammad], are free of restriction in this city

Pickthall: And thou art an indweller of this city

Shakir: And you shall be made free from obligation in this city

The Arabic text says:

Wa-anta ḥillun bihādhā al-baladi.

The word, ḥillun,  is translated lawful in Koran 3:93; 5:5; and 60:10. A more literal translation of this verse would be, “And thou art lawful in this city.” Another words, someone is being told that he can lawfully be in that city. He is not forbidden to be there.

In the New Testament, the New Jerusalem is mentioned.

But the Jerusalem above is free, which is the mother of us all. (Galatians 4:26, NKJV)

For our citizenship is in heaven, from which we eagerly wait for the Savior, the Lord Jesus Christ. (Philippians 3:20, NKJV)

For he (that is, Abraham) waited for the city which has foundations, whose builder and maker is God. (Hebrews 11:10, NKJV)

Then I, John, saw the holy city New Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband. (Revelation 21:2, NKJV)

But I saw no temple in it, for the Lord God Almighty and the Lamb are its temple. The city had no need of the sun or of the moon to shine in it, for the glory of God illuminated it. The Lamb is its light. And the nations of those who are saved[l] shall walk in its light, and the kings of the earth bring their glory and honor into it. Its gates shall not be shut at all by day (there shall be no night there). And they shall bring the glory and the honor of the nations into it. But there shall by no means enter it anything that defiles, or causes an abomination or a lie, but only those who are written in the Lamb’s Book of Life. (Revelation 21:22-27, NKJV)

No one can repent after he has been resurrected on the Last Day.

He who is unjust, let him be unjust still; he who is filthy, let him be filthy still; he who is righteous, let him be righteous still; he who is holy, let him be holy still. (Revelation 22:11, NKJV)

The Day that the shin shall be laid bare, and they shall be summoned to bow in adoration, but they shall not be able, — their eyes will be cast down, — ignominy will cover them; seeing that they had been summoned aforetime to bow in adoration, while they were whole, (and had refused). Then leave Me alone with such as reject this Message: by degrees shall We punish them from directions they perceive not. (Koran 68:42-44, Yusuf Ali)

Not everyone may lawfully enter and dwell in this city.

But outside are dogs and sorcerers and sexually immoral and murderers and idolaters, and whoever loves and practices a lie. (Revelation 22:15, NKJV)

Those who obey God by keeping His commandments have the right to enter the city.

Blessed are those who do His commandments, that they may have the right to the Tree of Life, and may enter through the gates into the city. (Revelation 22:14, NKJV)

verse 3  “The begetter” is God the Father; “Whom He begot” is God the Son. Begetting and being begotten are theological expressions. The procession of the Son from the Father is called “being begotten.” These words in no way teach that God had sex with someone.

Holy Trinity Diagram

verse 4 We = the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. All three hypostases of the deity are involved in the creation of human beings. The Son in the Bible is also called “the Word of the Lord.” The Holy Spirit is also called “the Divine Spirit.”

And now, O Lord, thou art our Father, and we are clay, all of us the work of thine hands. (Isaiah 64:8, LXX)

And the Word of the Lord came to him, saying, Before I formed thee in the belly, I knew thee; and before thou camest forth from the womb, I sanctified thee; I appointed thee a prophet to the nations. (Jeremiah 1:4,5, LXX)

The Divine Spirit is that which formed me. (Job 33:4, LXX)

Sahih International translated this verse: “We have certainly created man into hardship.”

The word, kabadin, appears only once in the Koran. It is translated “hardship” in this verse by Sahih International. In Job, it says:

Yet man is born to trouble as the sparks fly upward. (Job 5:7, NKJV)

Man was created into hardship. The hardship is both spiritual and material. The hardship is the fruit of the Fall. People need God in order to eventually escape this hardship forever.

And to the woman He said, I will greatly multiply thy pains and thy groanings; in pain thou shalt bring forth children, and thy submission shall be to thy husband, and he shall rule over thee. And to Adam He said, Because thou hast hearkened to the voice of thy wife, and eaten of the tree concerning which I charged thee of it only not to eat — of that thou hast eaten, cursed is the ground in thy labours, in pain shalt thou eat of it all the days of thy life. Thorns and thistles shall it bring forth to thee, and thou shalt eat the herb of the field. In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat thy bread until thou return to the earth out of which thou wast taken, for earth thou art and to earth thou shalt return. (Genesis 3:17-20, LXX)

verse 5 Thinketh he that none hath power over him? (Pickthall)

In Proverbs, it says:

Pride goes before destruction, and folly before a fall. Better is a meek-spirited man with lowliness, than one who divides spoils with the proud. (Proverbs 16:18,19, LXX)

Those who will not be allowed to dwell in that city will be proud and will mistakenly think that no one has power over them. God has power over them, though.

verse 6  He shall say: I have wasted much wealth. (Shakir)

Jesus told two parables about wealth. One is about hoarding wealth and the other is about prodigality, that is, wasting wealth.

And He said to them, “Take heed and beware of covetousness, for one’s life does not consist in the abundance of the things he possesses.” Then He spoke a parable to them, saying: “The ground of a certain rich man yielded plentifully. And he thought within himself, saying, ‘What shall I do, since I have no room to store my crops?’ So he said, ‘I will do this: I will pull down my barns and build greater, and there I will store all my crops and my goods. And I will say to my soul, “Soul, you have many goods laid up for many years; take your ease; eat, drink, and be merry.”’ But God said to him, ‘Fool! This night your soul will be required of you; then whose will those things be which you have provided?’ “So is he who lays up treasure for himself, and is not rich toward God.” (Luke 12:15-21, NKJV)

Then He said: “A certain man had two sons. And the younger of them said to his father, ‘Father, give me the portion of goods that falls to me.’ So he divided to them his livelihood. And not many days after, the younger son gathered all together, journeyed to a far country, and there wasted his possessions with prodigal living. But when he had spent all, there arose a severe famine in that land, and he began to be in want. Then he went and joined himself to a citizen of that country, and he sent him into his fields to feed swine. And he would gladly have filled his stomach with the pods that the swine ate, and no one gave him anything. But when he came to himself, he said, ‘How many of my father’s hired servants have bread enough and to spare, and I perish with hunger! I will arise and go to my father, and will say to him, “Father, I have sinned against heaven and before you, and I am no longer worthy to be called your son. Make me like one of your hired servants.”’ And he arose and came to his father. But when he was still a great way off, his father saw him and had compassion, and ran and fell on his neck and kissed him. And the son said to him, ‘Father, I have sinned against heaven and in your sight, and am no longer worthy to be called your son.’ But the father said to his servants, ‘Bring out the best robe and put it on him, and put a ring on his hand and sandals on his feet. And bring the fatted calf here and kill it, and let us eat and be merry; for this my son was dead and is alive again; he was lost and is found.’ And they began to be merry. Now his older son was in the field. And as he came and drew near to the house, he heard music and dancing. So he called one of the servants and asked what these things meant. And he said to him, ‘Your brother has come, and because he has received him safe and sound, your father has killed the fatted calf.’ But he was angry and would not go in. Therefore his father came out and pleaded with him. So he answered and said to his father, ‘Lo, these many years I have been serving you; I never transgressed your commandment at any time; and yet you never gave me a young goat, that I might make merry with my friends. But as soon as this son of yours came, who has devoured your livelihood with harlots, you killed the fatted calf for him.’ And he said to him, ‘Son, you are always with me, and all that I have is yours. It was right that we should make merry and be glad, for your brother was dead and is alive again, and was lost and is found.’” (Luke 15:11-32, NKJV)

verses 7,8 Does he think that no one sees him? Have We not given him two eyes (Shakir)

Understand now, ye simple among the people; and ye fools, at length be wise. He that planted the ear, does He not hear? or He that formed the eye, does not He perceive? (Psalm 93:8,9, LXX; 94:8,9, Hebrew)

God who has given us two eyes can see.

The eyes of the Lord behold both the evil and the good in every place. (Proverbs 15:3, LXX)

verse 9 And a tongue and two lips? (Shakir)

And the Lord said to Moses, Who has given a mouth to man, and who has made the very hard of hearing, and the deaf, the seeing and the blind? Have not I, God? (Exodus 4:11, LXX)

Therefore God can speak to us. The creator of the faculties of communication can communicate.

verse 10 And have shown him the two ways? (Sahih International)

The Arabic text is:

Wahadaynāhu al-najdayni?

Literally translated, “And We have shown him the two ways?”

God has set before us two ways: the way of life and the way of death. The way of life is the way of doing good. The way of death is the way of evil. When we follow one way, we receive a blessing. When we follow another way, we receive a curse.

Behold, I have set before thee this day life and death, good and evil. If thou wilt hearken to the commands of the Lord thy God, which I command thee this day, to love the Lord thy God, to walk in all His ways, and to keep His ordinances, and His judgments; then ye shall live, and shall be many in number, and the Lord thy God shall bless thee in all the land into which thou goest to inherit it. But if thy heart change, and thou wilt not hearken, and thou shalt go astray and worship other gods, and serve them, I declare to you this day, that ye shall utterly perish, and ye shall by no means live long upon the land, into which ye go over Jordan to inherit it. I call both heaven and earth to witness this day against you, I have set before you life and death, the blessing and the curse: choose thou life, that thou and thy seed may live; to love the Lord thy God, to hearken to His voice, and cleave to Him; for this is thy life, and the length of thy days, that thou shouldest dwell upon the land, which the Lord sware to thy fathers, Abraam, and Isaac, and Jacob, to give to them. (Deuteronomy 30:15-20, LXX)

And thou shalt say to this people, Thus saith the Lord; Behold, I have set before you the way of life, and the way of death. He that remains in this city shall die by the sword, and by famine: but he that goes forth to advance to the Chaldeans that have besieged you, shall live, and his life shall be to him for a spoil, and he shall live. For I have set my face against this city for evil, and not for good: it shall be delivered into the hands of the king of Babylon, and he shall consume it with fire. (Jeremiah 21:8-10, LXX)

verse 11 But he hath not attempted the Ascent (Pickthall)

Here, I am reminded of this verse from Psalm 23 of the Septuagint.

Who shall go up to the mountain of the Lord, and who shall stand in His holy place? (Psalm 23:3 LXX; Psalm 24:3, Hebrew)

verses 12-17

Here is the Koran’s answer to the question in verse 11.

12 Ah, what will convey unto thee what the Ascent is! –
13 (It is) to free a slave,
14 And to feed in the day of hunger.
15 An orphan near of kin,
16 Or some poor wretch in misery,
17 And to be of those who believe and exhort one another to perseverance and exhort one another to pity. (Pickthall)

Here is the 23rd Psalm’s answer to the question.

He that is innocent in his hands and pure in his heart; who has not lifted up his soul to vanity, nor sworn deceitfully to his neighbour. He shall receive a blessing from the Lord, and mercy from God his Saviour. This is the generation of them that seek him, that seek the face of the God of Jacob. Pause. (Psalm 23:3-6, LXX; Psalm 24:3-6, Hebrew)

Both texts are not providing exhaustive instructions on how to make the ascent, that is, how to become a lawful inhabitant of the New Jerusalem. Freeing slaves; feeding the hungry and the poor; not stealing, not committing murder, having a pure heart, not lifting up one’s soul to vanity, being truthful with others; believing in the existence of one God, the Last Day, and in all of God’s messengers; exhorting others to persevere in doing good, and exhorting others to be merciful are some of the things mentioned in this Surah from the Koran and in the passage from the Psalms.

verses 18,19

18 These are the people of the right hand.
19 And (as for) those who disbelieve in our communications, they are the people of the left hand. (Shakir)

Jesus spoke about the Last Judgment. Verses 18 and 19 of this Surah are speaking about the Last Judgment, too.

“When the Son of Man comes in His glory, and all the holy angels with Him, then He will sit on the throne of His glory. All the nations will be gathered before Him, and He will separate them one from another, as a shepherd divides his sheep from the goats. And He will set the sheep on His right hand, but the goats on the left. Then the King will say to those on His right hand, ‘Come, you blessed of My Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world: for I was hungry and you gave Me food; I was thirsty and you gave Me drink; I was a stranger and you took Me in; I was naked and you clothed Me; I was sick and you visited Me; I was in prison and you came to Me.’ Then the righteous will answer Him, saying, ‘Lord, when did we see You hungry and feed You, or thirsty and give You drink? When did we see You a stranger and take You in, or naked and clothe You? Or when did we see You sick, or in prison, and come to You?’ And the King will answer and say to them, ‘Assuredly, I say to you, inasmuch as you did it to one of the least of these My brethren, you did it to Me.’ Then He will also say to those on the left hand, ‘Depart from Me, you cursed, into the everlasting fire prepared for the devil and his angels: for I was hungry and you gave Me no food; I was thirsty and you gave Me no drink; I was a stranger and you did not take Me in, naked and you did not clothe Me, sick and in prison and you did not visit Me.’ Then they also will answer Him, saying, ‘Lord, when did we see You hungry or thirsty or a stranger or naked or sick or in prison, and did not minister to You?’ Then He will answer them, saying, ‘Assuredly, I say to you, inasmuch as you did not do it to one of the least of these, you did not do it to Me.’ And these will go away into everlasting punishment, but the righteous into eternal life.” (Matthew 25:31-46, NKJV)

In St. John’s Gospel, there is this passage which talks about divine judgment.

For God so loved the world that He gave His only begotten Son, that whoever believes in Him should not perish but have everlasting life. For God did not send His Son into the world to condemn the world, but that the world through Him might be saved. He who believes in Him is not condemned; but he who does not believe is condemned already, because he has not believed in the name of the only begotten Son of God. And this is the condemnation, that the light has come into the world, and men loved darkness rather than light, because their deeds were evil. For everyone practicing evil hates the light and does not come to the light, lest his deeds should be exposed.  But he who does the truth comes to the light, that his deeds may be clearly seen, that they have been done in God. (John 3:16-21, NKJV)

Notice that faith was mentioned in verse 17 of the Koran as a prerequisite for obtaining entrance into the city. Faith in Jesus Christ is mentioned as being necessary to avoid divine retribution in John 3:18. What many Christians do not know is that the Koran actually tells people to believe in Jesus. (Koran 3:45-53,179; 4:136,152,171; 5:110,111; 57:19,27-29; 61:6-13) Various good deeds were mentioned in verses 12-17 of this Surah. Practicing the truth, which is the opposite of practicing evil, is mentioned in John 3:21. In order to become someone who comes to the light, which is, of course, God, one must practice the truth. When one does good, one is living according to his true nature which God intended him to live by. Sin is a subtraction from one’s humanity and not an addition to it. Those who disbelieve in God’s revelations (verse 19, Pickthall) will be on the left hand of Jesus Christ on the Day of Judgment. Those who disbelieve in Jesus are “condemned already.” (John 3:18) They need to repent, believe, and start the spiritual ascent to the city by practicing good deeds.

verse 20 On them is fire closed over. (Shakir)

This is speaking about Gehenna (the Lake of Fire), the final resting place of the wicked after the Day of Judgment. In the Book of Revelation, it is mentioned here.

Then I saw a great white throne and Him who sat on it, from whose face the earth and the heaven fled away. And there was found no place for them. And I saw the dead, small and great, standing before God, and books were opened. And another book was opened, which is the Book of Life. And the dead were judged according to their works, by the things which were written in the books. The sea gave up the dead who were in it, and Death and Hades delivered up the dead who were in them. And they were judged, each one according to his works. Then Death and Hades were cast into the Lake of Fire. This is the second death. And anyone not found written in the Book of Life was cast into the Lake of Fire. (Revelation 20:11-15, NKJV)

  1. May 30, 2016 at 11:50 pm

    pay Attention ❣❣❣ pay… Attention #ATTENTION attention ❣❣❣
    just Read ✔
    #Islam is Lame isLam(e).No one said God has a son. son of God is God’s manifest as Man. GOd became human to die for us cause as Spirit God can’t die. All u see in quran.. Is assumptions.a book of assumptions is from Satan not God Almighty.AALAH/ gOD WANNABE the “ALLKOWING ’ (UNKNOWING) doesn’t know or he forgot to mention what son of God is or he doesn’t want to spoil HIS COVER AND SHOW EVERYONE WHAT A BIG FRAUD he is..‘no one has argument against scripture God’s fulfilled words. Not even ur Allah Satan God wannabe
    Islam =Satan Coming to fool people after his fall, that Torah is corrupt and and blabla , that God’s word is ’’not FULFILLED” when ACTUALLY IT IS. which is Impossible bcz Only God can say and keep His word
    No one has argument against God’s fulfilled words in scripture. Repent while u can.satan wants to be
    worshipped as God so he created islam
    Islam is not from God never will be. We all know God answers to those who seek Him
    A dead God wannabe can’t answer prayers
    Only Jesus can. jesus said : ask anything in any name I will do it <3
    #islamisajoke #hilarious #exmuslimbecause#bookofplagiarism #demonicinfluenced#falseprophet Islam #EXPOSED #lies #life#God #satan #BIBLE #PROPHECY#MakeNoMistakeJesusIsGod #falseideology#hell #eternity
    Allah is dismissed he is confused on what son of God is

    No one said there’s three. one God in flesh
    “But the prophet who speaks a word presumptuously in My name which I have
    not commanded him to speak … that prophet shall die.”
    ~GOD (Deuteronomy18:20)[1]
    “I have fabricated things against God and have imputed to Him words which He has not spoken.”
    ~MUHAMMAD (Al-Tabari 6:111)[2]
    Jesus killed Muhamad through a Jewish woman. Because he was a false prophet. God said He will poison false prophets Jeremiah 23:15. And Muhammad died of poison. Allah/ Satan said that if Muhammad said something false he will cut his aorta: )
    Who killed Muhamad

    All atheists, Do a demo and form by yourself without Jesus creating u, we all WAITING <3

    • June 1, 2016 at 2:41 am

      I approved your comment to allow others to see and express their views. I do not fully agree with everything that you are saying. I have a blog on this site titled, “Is the Koran Satanic?” Maybe you might want to take a look at that one. I think that one of the problems with interpreting the Koran is that many are relying on hadiths written down 200 or 300 years after Muhammad’s death instead of looking at the Bible to gain insight into the meaning of the Koran. Muhammad called Trinitarian monotheists “believers” in the thirtieth Surah (Koran 30:2-5). I do not think that he was against Trinitarian theology. He was against heretical Christian theology. Read my blog, “What the Koran Says about Christians.” Many of the teachings of the Koran are very similar to those in the Bible. As for the verses from the Koran which you quote from the war passages in the Koran, I think that it is necessary to interpret those passages in their historical context. There are some people who misuse those passages in order to justify terrotistic acts and other malevolent behavior, but I do not think that all Muslims do that — only those who are ignorant of their religion or who are being misguided by fanatical religious leaders. Thanks for following my blog.

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