Arabic Grammar

I am adding this page in order to assist people in better understanding some of the nuances of Arabic in the Koran. This page is a work in progress. It is incomplete. I will add more over time.

Key to Transliteration

Doubled vowels indicate that the vowel is long. There are emphatic letters in the Arabic alphabet: D, H, S, T, and DH. I use D-H to represent the two letters D and H when H follows D. q represents a different sound from k. In order to represent the sound of th as in mother, I use dh. I use th to represent the sound of th in thin. I use d-h to show that d and h are two different letters and not the one Arabic letter represented by dh. Likewise, I use t-h to distinguish the two letters t and h from the Arabic letter which is represented by th. The apostrophe, ‘ , is the glottal stop which in Arabic is a letter. This sound occurs in English but is never represented by a letter in English writing. I use all lower case letters for all the letters unless the letters are emphatic.

 

Arabic Pronouns and Possessive Adjectives

 

Nominative Case Pronouns

 

Singular Dual Plural
1st anaa naHnu naHnu
2nd masculine anta antumaa antum
2nd feminine anti antumaa antun
3rd masculine huwa humaa hum
3rd feminine hiya humaa hunna

 

Accusative Case Pronouns

 

Singular Dual Plural
1st -ni -naa -naa
2nd masculine -ka -kumaa -kum
2nd feminine -ki -kumaa -kun
3rd masculine -hu -humaa -hum
3rd feminine -ha -humaa -hun

 

Possessive Adjectives

 

Singular Dual Plural
1st -i -naa -naa
2nd masculine -ka -kumaa -kum
2nd feminine -ki -kumaa -kun
3rd masculine -hu -humaa -hum
3rd feminine -ha -humaa -hun

 

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