Why FGM is Haraam

May 21, 2017 Leave a comment

Then God saw everything that He had made, and indeed it was very good. So the evening and the morning were the sixth day. (Genesis 1:31, NKJV)

For Thou lovest all the things that are, and abhorrest nothing which Thou hast made: for never wouldest Thou have made any thing, if Thou hadst hated it. (Wisdom 11:24, KJV)

I am going to give my opinion on the subject of FGM (female genital mutilation). From what I have learned from watching a Youtube video and from what I have read on the internet, this practice is quite common among Muslims. The Koranists (those who take only the Koran and reject the hadiths) are usually opposed to the practice. I believe that the practice of circumcision, whether it be of a man or a woman, is contrary to the teachings of the Koran. I do not believe the hadiths.

Here are some hadiths about circumcision.

Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah’s Messenger said, “Five practices are characteristics of the Fitra: circumcision, shaving the pubic region, clipping the nails and cutting the moustaches short.” (Sahih al-Bukhari 5889)

Abu Huraira reported: Five are the acts quite akin to the Fitra, or five are the acts of Fitra: circumcision, shaving the pubes, cutting the nails, plucking the hair under the armpits and clipping the moustache. (Sahih Muslim 257a)

Abu Musa reported: There cropped up a difference of opinion between a group of Muhajirs (Emigrants and a group of Ansar (Helpers) (and the point of dispute was) that the Ansar said: The bath (because of sexual intercourse) becomes obligatory only-when the semen spurts out or ejaculates. But the Muhajirs said: When a man has sexual intercourse (with the woman), a bath becomes obligatory (no matter whether or not there is seminal emission or ejaculation). Abu Musa said: Well, I satisfy you on this (issue). He (Abu Musa, the narrator) said: I got up (and went) to ‘A’isha and sought her permission and it was granted, and I said to her: 0 Mother, or Mother of the Faithful, I want to ask you about a matter on which I feel shy. She said: Don’t feel shy of asking me about a thing which you can ask your mother, who gave you birth, for I am too your mother. Upon this I said: What makes a bath obligatory for a person? She replied: You have come across one well informed! The Messenger of Allah said: When anyone sits amidst four parts (of the woman) and the circumcised parts touch each other a bath becomes obligatory. (Sahih Muslim 349)

Narrated Umm Atiyyah al-Ansariyyah: A woman used to perform circumcision in Medina. The Prophet said to her: Do not cut severely as that is better for a woman and more desirable for a husband. Abu Dawud said: It has been transmitted by ‘Ubaid Allah b. ‘Amr from ‘Abd al-Malik to the same effect through a different chain. Abu Dawud said: It is not a strong tradition. It has been transmitted in mursal form (missing the link of the Companions) Abu Dawud said: Muhammad b. Hasan is obscure, and this tradition is weak. (Sunan Abi Dawud 5271) Grade: Sahih (Al-Albani)

I am not going to talk about male circumcision in detail here, but save that subject for another blog post

Female circumcision is undoubtedly un-Koranic. Nowhere in the Koran is there any commandment to circumcise a girl or a woman. The four hadiths quoted in this post are hearsay and should be ignored. Muhammad died in 632. The compiler of Sahih al-Bukhari was born in 810 and died in 870. The compiler of Sahih Muslim was born in 815 and died in 875. The compiler of Sunan Abi Dawud was born in 817 and died in 889. One has a choice. One can believe the hearsay hadiths or the Koran and the Bible.

In the Koran, it says:

Nothing is said to you, [O Muhammad], except what was already said to the messengers before you. Indeed, your Lord is a possessor of forgiveness and a possessor of painful penalty. (Koran 41:43, Sahih International)

Say: “I am not an innovation among the Messengers, and I know not what shall be done with me or with you. I only follow what is revealed to me; I am only a clear warner.” (Koran 46:9, Arberry)

If Muhammad actually taught that girls and women should be circumcised, he would have been teaching a new revelation in contradiction to what Allah told him in Koran 41:43. He would also have been “an innovation among the Messengers” in contradiction to Koran 46:9. There is no commandment in the Bible to circumcise females. Male circumcision was practiced in Old Testament times with the institution of the Abrahamic covenant. (See Genesis 17.) It was abolished in the New Testament. (See Acts 15:22-29; Romans 2:25-29; Galatians 5:1-6; 6:15.)

The Koran confirms the Bible. It does not contradict it.

And unto thee have We revealed the Scripture with the truth, confirming whatever Scripture was before it, and a watcher over it. (Koran 5:48, Pickthall)

Muhammad accepted the teachings of the Bible.

And do not argue with the People of the Scripture except in a way that is best, except for those who commit injustice among them, and say, “We believe in that which has been revealed to us and revealed to you. And our God and your God is one; and we are Muslims [in submission] to Him.” (Koran 29:46, Sahih International)

Therefore, Muhammad never told his followers to circumcise anyone. The hadiths are false and fabricated. They should not be trusted.

And pursue not that of which thou hast no knowledge; for every act of hearing, or of seeing or of (feeling in) the heart will be enquired into (on the Day of Reckoning). (Koran 17:36, Yusuf Ali)

The compilers of the hadiths did not have a time machine. They could not travel back in time and see if Muhammad actually taught that men and women should be circumcised. They recorded what people had passed down by word of mouth — hearsay.

The Koran says:

And they have no knowledge thereof. They follow but a guess, and lo! a guess can never take the place of the truth. (Koran 53:28, Pickthall)

If you believe and practice the false hadiths, you are relying on a guess and not the truth.

The Koran says:

We have indeed created man in the best of moulds. (Koran 95:4, Yusuf Ali)

There is no need to remove any part of a person’s body. God created men and women in the “best of moulds.” Their genitals do not need to be altered in order to please God. It also says in the Koran:

So remember Me; I will remember you. And be grateful to Me and do not deny Me. (Koran 2:152, Sahih International)

And certainly We gave wisdom to Luqman, saying: Be grateful to Allah. And whoever is grateful, he is on!y grateful for his own soul; and whoever is ungrateful, then surely Allah is Self-sufficient, Praised. (Koran 31:12, Shakir)

Say: He it is Who brought you into being and made for you the ears and the eyes and the hearts: little is it that you give thanks. (Koran 67:23, Shakir)

We should be grateful to God for our genitals. We should not despise them. We should not think that some part of them should be surgically removed. God is the Best of Creators (Koran 23:14; 37:125) and He made “all things good which He created.” (Koran 32:7)

When a girl is circumcised, part or all of her clitoris is removed. This is definitely barbaric and should be condemned.

Here is a video by David Wood on this subject

Although I often disagree with him about his interpretations of the Koran, I strongly agree with him on the subject of female circumcision. The Koran does not teach the practice of female circumcision. The hadiths and Islamic jurists teach that. The hadiths are hearsay. The Islamic jurists, who formulate Sharia law, are in error.

I have seen another video on Youtube which showed that some women in some parts of the world have had more than just their clitorises removed. Their labia minoras had been cut out and the labia majoras had been stitched together, leaving a small hole for sex and urination. That is even worse and is absolutely abominable. I will not put that video on this post because it is too graphic.

The problem with Islam as it is practiced by many today is following the hearsay hadiths, practicing the teachings of the Islamic jurists and Koranic commentators who have used those hearsay hadiths, and disobeying the Koran’s instructions to believe all the messengers of God and accept all the Scriptures which came before it. (Koran 4:136) It has become a one prophet religion without the Bible. Many Muslims are following the Koran and a massive collection of hearsay. Islam without the Bible is not genuine Islam according to the Koran. (Koran 4:150-152)

In conclusion, there is no commandment in the Koran to circumcise anyone. There is no commandment in the Bible to circumcise females. The practice of female circumcision is found in the hearsay hadiths. Muhammad accepted the Bible. He was not an “innovation among the messengers of God.” He had no new revelations. Therefore, he never taught female circumcision. God has created human beings in the “best of moulds.” We should be thankful to God for our private parts and not wish to have any part of our genitals removed. When someone follows the hearsay hadiths and practices female circumcision, he is disobeying the Koran and following a guess. He is not following the truth. (Koran 17:36; 53:28) Therefore, FGM is haraam.

He Hit the Nail Flat Square on the Head

May 14, 2017 Leave a comment

I discovered this video on Youtube. It was posted a couple of years ago. In it the Islamic scholar, Shabir Ally, tells about the source of Islamic extremism. I want to share the video here. I think that he “hit the nail flat square on the head.” This is the problem and the reason why so many professing Muslims resort to barbaric extremism.

I have been reading and studying the Koran. It is really quite benign. Of course, there are some passages which could be interpreted as encouraging war, but only if one cherry picks verses out of the context of the passage and does not look at what is being said in its historical context. Actually, the Koran encourages people to live in peace with each other. There is no commandment in the Koran to force people to accept Islam. There is no commandment in the Koran to mutilate a young girl’s genitals. There is no commandment in the Koran to kill someone in order to preserve one’s family’s honor. There is no commandment in the Koran to stone anyone to death for committing adultery or fornication. There is really no commandment in the Koran to kill an apostate, but some people cherry pick a verse or two from the Koran to support the practice. Looking at those verses in the context of the passages in which they occur and looking at what the rest of the Koran says, no one should be put to death for apostatizing from Islam.

I have already written some blogs on many of these subjects.

The problem is those hearsay hadiths written down over 200 years after Muhammad died. People have been using that massive collection of hearsay to formulate Sharia law and interpret the Koran. The classical tafsirs (Koranic commentators) have relied on those hearsay hadiths. Shabir said that in the videos.

Many of those hadiths (short stories about Muhammad and quotes of sayings allegedly attributed to him) contradict the teachings of the Koran and the Bible.

Scrap the hearsay and you have a much more pleasant version of the religion.

The Sunday of Saint Fatima

May 14, 2017 Leave a comment

I am an Orthodox Christian. Today in our Church we commemorate the Samaritan woman with whom Christ spoke in John 4. The Bible does not tell us much about her. We know from Church history and from reading the lives of the Saints that her sons (Victor and Joses) and she were eventually martyred in about 66 A.D. They all became Christians and died professing their faith in Jesus Christ.

Saint Fatima is also commemorated on March 20.

The Russian Christians call her Svetlana. The Greek Christians call her Photina (or Photini). The Arab Christians call her Fatima.

It has been the practice of Christians since ancient times to name their children after Saints. A Christian’s Patron Saint’s feast day is his or her name day.

Guess what is the name of Muhammad’s oldest daughter. Fatima. Muhammad’s oldest daughter was named after the Samaritan woman in John 4. She had a Christian name.

I just thought that this would be something interesting to share.

CCM and CIM

May 12, 2017 Leave a comment

And unto David We gave the Psalms. (Koran 17:55, Pickthall)


Praise the Lord with the harp; make melody to Him with an instrument of ten strings. Sing to Him a new song; play skillfully with a shout of joy. (Psalm 33:2,3, NKJV)

I first discovered Contemporary Christian Music (CCM) during my college days back in the 1970s. I used to listen to the Pat Terry Group, Amy Grant, and many others. I still like to listen to CCM every now and then although I, as an Orthodox Christian, might disagree with some of the theology in some of the songs. There is also something which I call Contemporary Islamic Music (CIM). I do not know what the Muslims call it. There are some really great songs that many of the Muslim singers sing which we Christians would agree with and also enjoy. In this blog post, I am going to display a few CIM videos and a few CCM videos. I hope that my readers enjoy them.

“The Power” by Maher Zain

“Insha Allah” by Maher Zain

“Time Waits for No One” by Junaid Jamshed and the Native Deen

“Hello” by Omar Esa

“Hijab” by some Muslim women

“Never in Our Name” by Iman Farrar

“The Way of Love” by Maher Zain

I disagree with some things that Maher Zain says about Muhammad in the previous video. I do not believe that Muhammad is the source of truth. (God is the source of all truth.) There are some other things that he says in the video about Muhammad that I do not accept. I will simply let the Koran and the Bible say what needs to be said. Ponder on the Koran. (Koran 4:82; 38:29)

And Muhammad is no more than a messenger; the messengers have already passed away before him. (Koran 3:144, Shakir)

We believe in that which hath been revealed unto us and revealed unto you; our God and your God is One, and unto Him we surrender. (Koran 29:46, Pickthall)

Let the People of the Gospel judge by that which Allah hath revealed therein. Whoso judgeth not by that which Allah hath revealed: such are evil-livers. (Koran 5:47, Pickthall)

Jesus is the Light

He does have a great Mother’s Day song though.

“The Number One for Me” by Maher Zain

Here are some CCM videos.

“Awesome God” by Michael W. Smith

“El Shaddai” by Amy Grant

“You Raise Me Up” by Josh Groban

“The Lost Get Found” by Britt Nicole

I hope everyone has enjoyed the videos. I just wanted to make known to my fellow Christians that there is such a thing as Contemporary Islamic Music. Listen to the CIM songs and the CCM songs. Compare and contrast.

Koranic Dietary Laws

I have read the passages in the Koran which pertain to dietary restrictions and I have noticed that they are very similar to those in the Bible. They are practically identical to the restrictions placed on Christians who converted to Christianity from a Gentile background with one exception. Muhammad said that Muslims should not eat pork. I have thought about some reasons why this commandment was given to the Muslims. Here, I will give my opinion on the subject.

First, let us look at some passages in the Old Testament.

Every moving thing that lives shall be food for you. I have given you all things, even as the green herbs. But you shall not eat flesh with its life, that is, its blood. (Genesis 9:3,4, NKJV)

And whatever man of the house of Israel, or of the strangers who dwell among you, who eats any blood, I will set My face against that person who eats blood, and will cut him off from among his people. For the life of the flesh is in the blood, and I have given it to you upon the altar to make atonement for your souls; for it is the blood that makes atonement for the soul. Therefore I said to the children of Israel, “No one among you shall eat blood, nor shall any stranger who dwells among you eat blood.” (Leviticus 17:10-12, NKJV)

These two passages prohibit people from eating blood. There has always been a prohibition against eating blood. In the New Testament, we can see this prohibition given twice in the Book of Acts. (Acts 15:28,29; 21:25)

In the Canons of the Holy Apostles, there is a prohibition against eating blood, too.

If any bishop, or presbyter, or deacon, or indeed any one of the sacerdotal catalogue, eats flesh with the blood of its life, or that which is torn by beasts, or which died of itself, let him be deprived; for this the law itself has forbidden. But if he be one of the laity, let him be suspended. (Canon LXIII, Canons of the Holy Apostles)

These canons were accepted by the Quinisext Council in its Second Canon in 692 A.D. In one of the canons of this council, the eating of blood is forbidden. The Quinisext Council is an  extension of the Fifth and Sixth Ecumenical Councils.

The divine Scripture commands us to abstain from blood, from things strangled, and from fornication. Those therefore who on account of a dainty stomach prepare by any art for food the blood of any animal, and so eat it, we punish suitably. If anyone henceforth venture to eat in any way the blood of an animal, if he be a clergyman, let him be deposed; if a layman, let him be cut off. (Canon LXVII, Quinisext Council, 692 A.D.)

The Koran, likewise, forbids the eating of blood. (Koran 2:172,173; 5:3; 16:114,115)

Christians are supposed to abstain from eating foods that have been offered to idols. (Acts 15:28,29; 21:25) The Koran forbids us to eat foods that have been offered to idols, too. (Koran 2:172,173; 5:3; 6:119,121; 16:114,115)

Christians are forbidden to eat animals that have been strangled, died of themselves, or torn by wild beasts. (Acts 15:28,29; 21:25; Canon LXIII of the Holy Apostles; Canon LXVII of the Quinisext Council) The Koran, likewise, forbids us to eat animal that have died in such ways. (Koran 2:172,173; 5:3; 16:114,115)

The Old Testament has a prohibition against eating pork for the Israelites. (Leviticus 11:7,8; Deuteronomy 14:8) However, in the New Testament, Jesus declared all foods to be clean.

When He had called all the multitude to Himself, He said to them, “Hear Me, everyone, and understand: there is nothing that enters a man from outside which can defile him; but the things which come out of him, those are the things that defile a man. If anyone has ears to hear, let him hear!” When He had entered a house away from the crowd, His disciples asked Him concerning the parable. So He said to them, “Are you thus without understanding also? Do you not perceive that whatever enters a man from outside cannot defile him, because it does not enter his heart but his stomach, and is eliminated, thus purifying all foods?” And He said, “What comes out of a man, that defiles a man. For from within, out of the heart of men, proceed evil thoughts, adulteries, fornications, murders, thefts, covetousness, wickedness, deceit, lewdness, an evil eye, blasphemy, pride, foolishness. All these evil things come from within and defile a man.” (Mark 7:14-23, NKJV)

Later, after Jesus had been resurrected from the dead and ascended into heaven, some dietary restrictions were given to the Christians who converted to Christianity from a Gentile background.

For it seemed good to the Holy Spirit, and to us, to lay upon you no greater burden than these necessary things: that you abstain from things offered to idols, from blood, from things strangled, and from sexual immorality. If you keep yourselves from these, you will do well. (Acts 15:28,29, NKJV)

But concerning the Gentiles who believe, we have written and decided that they should observe no such thing, except that they should keep themselves from things offered to idols, from blood, from things strangled, and from sexual immorality. (Acts 21:25, NKJV)

It makes sense to abstain from foods that have been offered to idols. We are not supposed to engage in any form of worship of false gods. Eating foods that have been offered to idols is an act of worship in pagan religions. So, if a former pagan does this, he is, in effect, practicing idolatry again after having been delivered from it through Christ.

Here are the verses from the Koran about dietary restrictions.

O ye who believe! Eat of the good things wherewith We have provided you, and render thanks to Allah if it is (indeed) He Whom ye worship. He hath forbidden you only carrion, and blood, and swineflesh, and that which hath been immolated to (the name of) any other than Allah. But he who is driven by necessity, neither craving nor transgressing, it is no sin for him. Lo! Allah is Forgiving, Merciful. (Koran 2:172,173, Pickthall)

Forbidden unto you (for food) are carrion and blood and swineflesh, and that which hath been dedicated unto any other than Allah, and the strangled, and the dead through beating, and the dead through falling from a height, and that which hath been killed by (the goring of) horns, and the devoured of wild beasts, saving that which ye make lawful (by the death-stroke), and that which hath been immolated unto idols. And (forbidden is it) that ye swear by the divining arrows. This is an abomination. This day are those who disbelieve in despair of (ever harming) your religion; so fear them not, fear Me! This day have I perfected your religion for you and completed My favour unto you, and have chosen for you as religion al-Islam. Whoso is forced by hunger, not by will, to sin: (for him) lo! Allah is Forgiving, Merciful. (Koran 5:3, Pickthall)

How should ye not eat of that over which the name of Allah hath been mentioned, when He hath explained unto you that which is forbidden unto you unless ye are compelled thereto. But lo! many are led astray by their own lusts through ignorance. Lo! thy Lord, He is Best Aware of the transgressors. (Koran 6:119, Pickthall)

And eat not of that whereon Allah’s name hath not been mentioned, for lo! it is abomination. Lo! the devils do inspire their minions to dispute with you. But if ye obey them, ye will be in truth idolaters. (Koran 6:121, Pickthall)

So eat of the lawful and good food which Allah hath provided for you, and thank the bounty of your Lord if it is Him ye serve. He hath forbidden for you only carrion and blood and swineflesh and that which hath been immolated in the name of any other than Allah; but he who is driven thereto, neither craving nor transgressing, lo! then Allah is Forgiving, Merciful. (Koran 16:114,115, Pickthall)

The Koran gives a few other restrictions on eating dead animals that are not found in the Bible or in the Church Canons. (Koran 5:3) It also forbids eating swineflesh (pork).

I do not think that the reason for forbidding the eating of pork is a revival of the Old Testament dietary restrictions. Muslims are allowed to eat camels.

And the camels! We have appointed them among the ceremonies of Allah. Therein ye have much good. So mention the name of Allah over them when they are drawn up in lines. Then when their flanks fall (dead), eat thereof and feed the beggar and the suppliant. Thus have We made them subject unto you, that haply ye may give thanks. (Koran 22:36, Pickthall)

In the Old Testament, the Israelites were forbidden to eat camels.

Nevertheless, of those that chew the cud or have cloven hooves, you shall not eat, such as these: the camel, the hare, and the rock hyrax; for they chew the cud but do not have cloven hooves; they are unclean for you. (Deuteronomy 14:7, NKJV)

Jews, nevertheless, have been known to eat camels.

Blind guides, who strain out a gnat and swallow a camel! (Matthew 23:24, NKJV)

I think that there are two other possible reasons for the Muslims to abstain from pork. The first theory I have is that they were practicing a New Testament commandment to live in peace with their fellow man (namely, the Jews) as much as possible. The Muslims worshiped one God just like the Jews did. The Koran says that the Torah is “a light and guidance for mankind.” (Koran 6:91) There was a Jewish community in Mecca. The Jews probably harassed the Muslims because they did not abide by the dietary laws in the Torah. St. Paul said these things in his letters.

I know and am convinced by the Lord Jesus that there is nothing unclean of itself; but to him who considers anything to be unclean, to him it is unclean. Yet if your brother is grieved because of your food, you are no longer walking in love. Do not destroy with your food the one for whom Christ died. Therefore do not let your good be spoken of as evil; for the kingdom of God is not eating and drinking, but righteousness and peace and joy in the Holy Spirit. (Romans 14:14-17, NKJV)

Therefore let us pursue the things which make for peace and the things by which one may edify another. Do not destroy the work of God for the sake of food. All things indeed are pure, but it is evil for the man who eats with offense. It is good neither to eat meat nor drink wine nor do anything by which your brother stumbles or is offended or is made weak. (Romans 14:19-21, NKJV)

For though I am free from all men, I have made myself a servant to all, that I might win the more; 20 and to the Jews I became as a Jew, that I might win Jews; to those who are under the law, as under the law, that I might win those who are under the law; to those who are without law, as without law (not being without law toward God, but under law toward Christ), that I might win those who are without law; to the weak I became as weak, that I might win the weak. I have become all things to all men, that I might by all means save some. (I Corinthians 9:19-22, NKJV)

Give no offense, either to the Jews or to the Greeks or to the church of God. (I Corinthians 10:32, NKJV)

The Muslims were probably told to abstain from eating pork in order to give no offense to the Jews.

St. Paul said in his letter to the Galatian Christians that circumcision is unimportant.

For in Christ Jesus neither circumcision nor uncircumcision avails anything, but faith working through love. (Galatians 5:6, NKJV)

For in Christ Jesus neither circumcision nor uncircumcision avails anything, but a new creation. (Galatians 6:15, NKJV)

However, for the sake of the Jews whom he did not wish to offend he circumcised Timothy.

Then he came to Derbe and Lystra. And behold, a certain disciple was there, named Timothy, the son of a certain Jewish woman who believed, but his father was Greek. He was well spoken of by the brethren who were at Lystra and Iconium. Paul wanted to have him go on with him. And he took him and circumcised him because of the Jews who were in that region, for they all knew that his father was Greek. (Acts 16:1-3, NKJV)

Hogs are raised domestically for food. So, Jews would probably complain more to the Muslims about raising hogs for food and eating their meat. Other animals deemed to be not Kosher would have to be hunted.

Perhaps, the Muslims’ abstention from pork is supposed to remind them to strive to live in peace with the Jews. The Koran says that we should make peace among mankind. (Koran 4:114)

If this is the reason, perhaps the Indian Muslims should abstain from eating beef in order not to offend the Hindus. I think that they would be practicing the spirit of the Koran if they would do so.

The second theory that I have is that the Muslims are supposed to abstain from pork as a form of fasting from that particular meat. I have already shown in previous blogs that the Koran commands Muslims to believe in and obey Jesus. (Koran 2:285; 3:50; 5:111-115) Fasting is one of the activities we are supposed to engage in.

Then the disciples of John came to Him, saying, “Why do we and the Pharisees fast often, but Your disciples do not fast?” And Jesus said to them, “Can the friends of the bridegroom mourn as long as the bridegroom is with them? But the days will come when the bridegroom will be taken away from them, and then they will fast.  (Matthew 9:14,15, NKJV)

In the Koran, pork is forbidden, but not declared to be unclean as it is in the Old Testament. Of course, if a Muslim has nothing else to eat but the forbidden foods, he is allowed to eat them in order to satisfy his hunger.

Muhammad did not receive any new revelations and was not an innovation among the messengers of God. (Koran 41:43; 46:9) The Koran confirms the Bible. (Koran 5:48) It does not contradict it. So, the explanation for this commandment to abstain from eating pork must be found in the Bible. These are the only two theories that I have and which are based on Biblical doctrines.

God Forgives: An Exegesis of Koran 3:129-136

Now, I want to do an exegesis on another passage from the Koran — Surah 3:129-136. This passage contains some good moral teaching plus promises of eternal bliss for those who believe in God and obey Him. It also contains some words that have been used by Christian apologists to prove the deity of Jesus Christ.

Some words about Orthodox Christian doctrine for my Muslim readers need to be said first. We Orthodox Christians are not Bitheists, nor are we Tritheists. We worship one God who exists in three distinct hypostases. These  hypostases (subsistences) are often called Persons. All three Persons of the Deity share the same essence (that is, substance). If one were to divide the Divine Essence into infinitesimal particles, each particle would belong to all three Persons. We believe that the Father has neither a beginning, nor an origin. We believe that the Word (also called the Son) has an origin, but no beginning. We believe that the Holy Spirit has an origin, but no beginning. The procession of the Son from the Father is called “being begotten.” This does not mean that the Father had sexual relations with a female goddess or creature. There is only one God. Therefore, no female goddess exists. The Divine Essence does not possess genitals. Therefore, there was no sexual procreation involved in the origination of the Son. The terms “being begotten” and “begotten” are theological terms used in the Bible. No one should interpret them literally. The procession of the Holy Spirit is called “proceeding.” We believe that the Word of God became incarnate in the body of the Virgin Mary. Jesus, who is the incarnate Word of God, possesses both a divine nature and a human nature. The two natures of Jesus are joined together without separation, division, mixture, or change. The divine nature of Jesus was not converted into a human nature. The human nature of Jesus was not converted into a divine nature. The two natures are joined together by diffusion. The divine nature permeates the human nature of Jesus. The divine nature is omnipresent. The human nature is limited in space and time. Whenever we pray to the Son, we are praying to the same God that the Father and the Holy Spirit are. Whenever we pray to the Holy Spirit, we are praying to the same God that the Father and the Son are. All three Persons are one and the same God, but different hypostases of that God. So, whenever we say that Jesus is God, we are not saying that He is a different God from the Father. He is a different hypostasis of that God.

Now for the exegesis of the the text. The first verse in this passage is verse 129.

To Allah belongeth all that is in the heavens and on earth. He forgiveth whom He pleaseth and punisheth whom He pleaseth; but Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. (Koran 3:129, Yusuf Ali)

The Koran contains so many teachings which are very similar to those found in the Bible. The first sentence in this verse teaches what is taught in the Psalms. “To Allah belongeth all that is in the heavens and the earth.” Look at these four verses from the Psalms.

The earth is the Lord’s and the fullness thereof; the world, and all that dwell in it. (Psalm 23:1, LXX; Psalm 24:1, Hebrew)

If I should be hungry, I will not tell thee: for the world is Mine, and the fullness of it. (Psalm 49:12, LXX; Psalm 50:12, Hebrew)

The heavens are Thine, and the earth is Thine: Thou hast founded the world, and the fullness of it.  (Psalm 88:11, LXX; Psalm 89:11, Hebrew)

The heaven of heavens belongs to the Lord: but He has given the earth to the sons of men.  (Psalm 113:24, LXX; Psalm 115:16, Hebrew)

The Koran and the Bible both teach that God owns everything. I remember the words of a song by Pat Terry in the 1970s: “Everything thing I own will still belong to Him.” Even though “He has given the earth to the sons of men” (Psalm 113:24, LXX; Psalm 115:6, Hebrew), He still owns it because He owns “all that dwell in it.” (Psalm 23:1, LXX; Psalm 24:1, Hebrew)

Now I want to talk about how Jesus inherits the universe that He created. As God, He already owns it. As Man, born under the covenants, He inherits it. In Galatians, it says:

Now to Abraham and his Seed were the promises made. He does not say, “And to seeds,” as of many, but as of one, “And to your Seed,” who is Christ. (Galatians 3:16, NKJV)

St. Paul, who wrote this epistle to the Galatians, used the Septuagint version of the Old Testament. He quoted from it frequently in his epistles. Here are some verses from the Septuagint version of Genesis.

And the Lord appeared to Abram, and said to him, I will give this land to thy seed. And Abram built an altar there to the Lord who appeared to him. (Genesis 12:7, LXX)

And God said to Abram after Lot was separated from him, Look up with thine eyes, and behold from the place where thou now art northward and southward, and eastward and seaward; for all the land which thou seest, I will give it to thee and to thy seed for ever. (Genesis 13:14,15, LXX)

The Lord the God of heaven, and the God of the earth, who took me out of my father’s house, and out of the land whence I sprang, who spoke to me, and who swore to me, saying, I will give this land to thee and to thy seed, He shall send His angel before thee, and thou shalt take a wife to my son from thence. (Genesis 24:7, LXX)

Notice that the word, “seed,” is singular thus referring to only one Person, the Messiah or the Christ. In Romans, we learn that God promised the entire universe to Abraham and his Seed.

For the promise that he would be the heir of the world (Greek, kosmos, universe) was not to Abraham or to his seed through the law, but through the righteousness of faith. (Romans 4:13, NKJV)

Before His death and resurrection, Jesus said:

All things that the Father has are Mine. (John 16:15, NKJV)

After His death and resurrection, He said:

All authority has been given to Me in heaven and on earth. (Matthew 28:18, NKJV)

In Hebrews, it says:

God, who at various times and in various ways spoke in time past to the fathers by the prophets, has in these last days spoken to us by His Son, whom He has appointed heir of all things, through whom also He made the worlds ( Greek, aionas, ages). (Hebrew 1:1,2, NKJV)

As God, Jesus already owned the universe. (John 16:15) As Man, He inherited the entire universe after He arose from the dead. (Matthew 28:18; Hebrews 1:1,2)

God created not only the universe, but also time itself. (Hebrews 1:2) God the Father owns time, just like He owns the universe. Jesus owns time, too. (John 16:15)

In Romans, it says:

The Spirit Himself bears witness with our spirit that we are children of God, and if children, then heirs — heirs of God and joint heirs with Christ, if indeed we suffer with Him, that we may also be glorified together. (Romans 8:16,17, NKJV)

Those who do the will of God and keep His commandments are His children. As children of God, they are also heirs of God and joint heirs with Christ.

In the 19th Surah of the Koran, it says:

It is We Who will inherit the earth, and all beings thereon: to Us will they all be returned. (Koran 19:40, Yusuf Ali)

The Divine Essence permeates the human nature of Jesus. Each infinitesimal particle of the Divine Essence belongs to all three hypostases of the Deity. Therefore, God (the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit) says, “It is We Who will inherit the earth, and all beings thereon.” God already owns everything, but through the Son who became incarnate the other two hypostases inherit what They already own.

The existence of only one God who is a plural number of Persons can be seen in this passage from the 21st Surah.

Lo! this, your religion, is one religion, and I am your Lord, so worship Me. And they have broken their religion (into fragments) among them, (yet) all are returning unto Us. (Koran 21:92,93, Pickthall)

God uses the singular first person pronoun, Me, in reference to Himself in 21:92 and the first person plural pronoun, Us, in reference to Himself in 21:93. The first person singular pronoun indicates that there is only one God. The first person plural pronoun indicates that He exists in three Persons: the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit.

“He forgiveth whom He pleaseth and punisheth whom He pleaseth.”

These words are also taught in the Bible. Look at these two passages.

But our God has done in heaven and on earth, whatsoever He has pleased. ( Psalm 113:11, LXX; Psalm 115:3, Hebrew)

What shall we say then? Is there unrighteousness with God? Certainly not! For He says to Moses, “I will have mercy on whomever I will have mercy, and I will have compassion on whomever I will have compassion.” So then it is not of him who wills, nor of him who runs, but of God who shows mercy. For the Scripture says to the Pharaoh, “For this very purpose I have raised you up, that I may show My power in you, and that My name may be declared in all the earth.” Therefore He has mercy on whom He wills, and whom He wills He hardens. (Romans 9:14-18, NKJV)

“But Allah is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful.”

Elsewhere in the Koran, it says:

For Thou art the Most Merciful of those who show mercy. (Koran 7:151, Yusuf Ali)

and:

Grant Thou forgiveness and mercy for Thou art the Best of those who show mercy. (Koran 23:118, Yusuf Ali)

The Koran often emphasizes that God is merciful toward His creatures.

The Bible, likewise, teaches that God is merciful. According to the Bible, God is “rich in mercy.” (Ephesians 2:4) The Holy Prophet Micah said that God delights in mercy.

Who is a God like Thee, cancelling iniquities, and passing over the sins of the remnant of His inheritance? and He has not kept His anger for a testimony, for He delights in mercy. He will return and have mercy upon us; He will sink our iniquities, and they shall be cast into the depth of the sea, even all our sins. (Micah 7:18,19, LXX)

The Koran teaches that God forgives all sins.

Say: “O my Servants who have transgressed against their souls! Despair not of the Mercy of Allah: for Allah forgives all sins: for He is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.” (Koran 39:53, Yusuf Ali)

The angels intercede before God for believers who have sinned.

Those [angels] who carry the Throne and those around it exalt [Allah] with praise of their Lord and believe in Him and ask forgiveness for those who have believed, [saying], “Our Lord, You have encompassed all things in mercy and knowledge, so forgive those who have repented and followed Your way and protect them from the punishment of Hellfire. (Koran 40:7, Sahih International)

It is the practice of us Orthodox Christians to ask for the prayers of their guardian angels. So, this notion about angels praying for people is not strange to us.

Faith in God is necessary for one to be forgiven by God. Both the Koran and the Bible teach this.

Indeed, we have believed in our Lord that He may forgive us our sins and what you compelled us [to do] of magic. And Allah is better and more enduring. (Koran 20:73, Sahih International)

O our people! respond to Allah’s summoner and believe in Him. He will forgive you some of your sins and guard you from a painful doom. (Koran 46:31, Pickthall)

To Him all the prophets witness that, through His name, whoever believes in Him will receive remission of sins. (Acts 10:43, NKJV)

The Koran tells us to believe in Muhammad and not just in him, but in all of the messengers of God.

O you who have believed, fear Allah and believe in His Messenger; He will [then] give you a double portion of His mercy and make for you a light by which you will walk and forgive you; and Allah is Forgiving and Merciful. (Koran 57:28, Sahih International)

So believe in Allah and His messengers. If ye believe and ward off (evil), yours will be a vast reward. (Koran 3:179, Pickthall)

The Koran, like the Bible, teaches that repentance is also necessary in order for one to be forgiven by God.

O ye who believe! Turn unto Allah in sincere repentance! It may be that your Lord will remit from you your evil deeds and bring you into Gardens underneath which rivers flow, on the day when Allah will not abase the Prophet and those who believe with him. Their light will run before them and on their right hands; they will say: Our Lord! Perfect our light for us, and forgive us! Lo! Thou art Able to do all things. (Koran 66:8, Pickthall)

Repent therefore and be converted, that your sins may be blotted out, so that times of refreshing may come from the presence of the Lord. (Acts 3:19, NKJV)

People who refuse to repent and defiantly disobey God do not receive forgiveness from God. Both the Koran and the Bible teach this.

It is all the same for them whether you ask forgiveness for them or do not ask forgiveness for them; never will Allah forgive them. Indeed, Allah does not guide the defiantly disobedient people. (Koran 63:6, Sahih International)

But unless you repent you will all likewise perish. (Luke 13:3, NKJV)

For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who suppress the truth in unrighteousness. (Romans 1:18, NKJV)

But in accordance with your hardness and your impenitent heart you are treasuring up for yourself wrath in the day of wrath and revelation of the righteous judgment of God, who “will render to each one according to his deeds”: eternal life to those who by patient continuance in doing good seek for glory, honor, and immortality; but to those who are self-seeking and do not obey the truth, but obey unrighteousness — indignation and wrath, tribulation and anguish, on every soul of man who does evil, of the Jew first and also of the Greek; but glory, honor, and peace to everyone who works what is good, to the Jew first and also to the Greek. For there is no partiality with God. (Romans 2:5-11, NKJV)

The next verse is verse 130.

O ye who believe! Devour not usury, doubled and multiplied; but fear Allah; that ye may (really) prosper. (Koran 3:130, Yusuf Ali)

“O ye who believe! Devour not usury, doubled and multiplied.”

Usury is loaning money at interest. Banks and credit card companies make money doing this. Historically, however, Christians regarded usury as a grave sin. It was not until the advent of Calvinist theology in the 16th century that Christians began loaning money at interest. The Roman Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church were opposed to the practice of usury in ancient times.

There are prohibitions against usury in the Bible. In the Torah, the ancient Israelites were forbidden to loan money to a fellow Israelite at interest, but they were allowed to loan money to those who were not Israelites at interest.

And if thou shouldest lend money to thy poor brother who is by thee, thou shalt not be hard upon him. Thou shalt not exact usury of him. (Exodus 22:25, LXX)

Thou shalt not lend to thy brother on usury of silver, or usury of meat, or usury of any thing which thou mayest lend out. Thou mayest lend on usury to a stranger, but to thy brother thou shalt not lend on usury; that the Lord thy God may bless thee in all thy works upon the land, into which thou art entering to inherit it. (Deuteronomy 23:19,20, LXX)

In the later books of the Bible, people were forbidden to loan money at interest to anyone, whether he be an Israelite or a foreigner.

O Lord, who shall sojourn in Thy tabernacle? And who shall dwell in Thy holy mountain?… He has not lent his money on usury, and has not received bribes against the innocent. He that does these things shall never be moved. (Psalm 14:1,5, LXX; Psalm 15:1,5, Hebrew)

He that increases his wealth by usuries and unjust gains, gathers it for him that pities the poor. (Proverbs 30:8, LXX; Proverbs 28:8, Hebrew)

Woe is me, my mother, that you have borne me, a man of strife and a man of contention to the whole earth! I have neither lent for interest, nor have men lent to me for interest. Every one of them curses me. (Jeremiah 15:10, NKJV)

But the man who shall be just, who executes judgment and righteousness, who shall not eat upon the mountains, and shall not at all lift up his eyes to the devices of the house of Israel, and shall not defile his neighbor’s wife, and shall not draw nigh to her that is removed, and shall not oppress any man, but shall return the pledge of the debtor, and shall be guilty of no plunder, shall give his bread to the hungry, and clothe the naked; and shall not lend his money upon usury, and shall not receive usurious increase, and shall turn back his hand from injustice, shall execute righteous judgement between a man and his neighbor, and has walked in My commandments and kept Mine ordinances, to do them; he is righteous, he shall surely live, saith the Lord. And if he beget a mischievous son, shedding blood and committing sins, who has not walked in the way of his righteous father, but has even eaten upon the mountains, and has defiled his neighbor’s wife, and has oppressed the poor and needy, and has committed robbery, and not restored a pledge, and has set his eyes upon idols, has wrought iniquities, has lent upon usury, and taken usurious increase; he shall by no means live: he has wrought all these iniquities; he shall surely die; his blood shall be upon him. And if he beget a son, and the son see all his father’s sins which he has wrought, and fear, and not do according to them, and if he has not eaten on the mountains, and has not set his eyes on the devices of the house of Israel, and has not defiled his neighbor’s wife, and has not oppressed a man, and has not retained the pledge, nor committed robbery, has given his bread to the hungry, and has clothed the naked, and has turned back his hand from unrighteousness, has not received interest or usurious increase, has wrought righteousness, and walked in mine ordinances; he shall not die for the iniquities of his father, he shall surely live. (Ezekiel 18:5-17, LXX)

Behold, the princes of the house of Israel have conspired in thee each one with his kindred, that they might shed blood. In thee they have reviled father and mother; and in thee they have behaved unjustly toward the stranger: they have oppressed the orphan and widow. And they have set at nought My holy things, and in thee they have profaned My sabbaths. There are robbers in thee, to shed blood in thee; and in thee they have eaten upon the mountains: they have wrought ungodliness in the midst of thee. In thee they have uncovered the father’s shame; and in thee they have humbled her that was set apart for uncleanness. They have dealt unlawfully each one with his neighbor’s wife; and each one in ungodliness has defiled his daughter-in-law: and in thee they have humbled each one his sister, the daughter of his father. In thee they have received gifts to shed blood; they have received in thee interest and usurious increase; and by oppression thou hast brought thy wickedness to the full, and hast forgotten Me, saith the Lord. And if I shall smite My hand at thine iniquities which thou hast accomplished, which thou hast wrought, and at thy blood that has been shed in the midst of thee, shall thy heart endure? Shall thine hands be strong in the days which I bring upon thee? I the Lord have spoken, and will do it. (Ezekiel 22:6-14, LXX)

But love your enemies, do good, and lend, hoping for nothing in return; and your reward will be great, and you will be sons of the Most High. For He is kind to the unthankful and evil. (Luke 6:35, NKJV)

The Church Fathers were opposed to usury. Here are some citations from two of them: St. Gregory the Theologian and St. John Chrysostom.

That the Fathers have been too gentle toward the idolatry of covetous persons, in condemning to penance only robbery, digging of graves, and sacrilege, whereas usury and oppression, though under colour of contract, are forbidden by Scripture. That highwaymen returning to the Church, be treated as murderers. They that pilfer, and then confess their sin to the priest, are only obliged to amendment, and to be liberal to the poor; and if they have nothing, to labour and give their earnings. (Canon VI, St. Gregory the Theologian, vol. 14, p. 611, Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series)

Lend there, where thy return cannot be death, but life instead of death. For this usury is the harbinger of a kingdom, that, of hell; the one coming of covetousness, the other of self-denial; the one of cruelty, the other of humanity.  (Homily V on the Gospel according to St. Matthew, by St. John Chrysostom, vol. 10, p. 35, Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, First Series)

The canons of St. Gregory the Theologian were accepted by the Quinisext Council in its Second Canon in 692 A.D. The Quinisext Council is an extension of the Fifth and Sixth Ecumenical Councils. Therefore, it is ecumenical and the Canons of St. Gregory, which were accepted by it, are binding on the whole Church.

Usury

“But fear Allah; that ye may really prosper.”

Those who fear God will truly prosper. The Bible teaches the same thing. He who fears God, begins to be wise.

The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom, and all that act accordingly have a good understanding; his praise endures for ever and ever. (Psalm 110:10, LXX; Psalm 111:10, Hebrew)

The man who gets wisdom obtains long life (that is, immortality), wealth, and glory.

Blessed is the man who has found wisdom, and the mortal who knows prudence. For it is better to traffic for her, than for treasures of gold and silver. And she is more valuable than precious stones: no evil thing shall resist her: she is well known to all that approach her, and no precious thing is equal to her in value. For length of existence and years of life are in her right hand; and in her left hand are wealth and glory: out of her mouth proceeds righteousness, and she carries law and mercy upon her tongue. Her ways are good ways, and all her paths are peaceful. She is a tree of life to all that lay hold upon her; and she is a secure help to all that stay themselves on her, as on the Lord. (Proverbs 3:13-18, LXX)

In the 22nd chapter of Proverbs it says:

The fear of the Lord is the offspring of wisdom, and wealth, and glory, and life. (Proverbs 22:4, LXX)

The offspring of wisdom means the beginning of wisdom as in Psalm 110:10 of the Septuagint. The fear of the Lord is also wealth, and glory, and life (that is, immortality). Departing from evil is a characteristic of a wise man.

Be not wise in thine own conceit; but fear God, and depart from all evil. (Proverbs 3:7, LXX)

A wise man fears, and departs from evil; but the fool trusts in himself, and joins himself with the transgressor. (Proverbs 14:16, LXX)

It is by fearing God that one departs from evil.

The fear of the Lord hates unrighteousness, and insolence, and pride, and the ways of wicked men; and I hate the perverse ways of bad men. (Proverbs 8:13, LXX)

But by the fear of the Lord every one departs from evil. (Proverbs 15:27, LXX; 16:6, Hebrew)

So, one who is willing to flirt with evil does not really fear God. Usury is evil. The way to depart from the practice of usury is to fear God. The thought of losing Paradise and inhabiting Hell should be enough to deter one from lending money at interest.

The next verse in this passage is verse 131.

Fear the Fire, which is repaired for those who reject Faith: (Koran 3:131, Yusuf Ali)

The Arabic word translated “repaired” by Yusuf Ali is usually translated “prepared” by most translators.

And fear the Fire, which has been prepared for the disbelievers. (Koran 3:131, Sahih International)

Faith without works is dead. (James 2:17,26) Those who refuse to do righteous deeds and avoid sin do not have genuine faith. They should not think that their dead faith will save them. The Bible speaks of the Fire which we all should fear.

The sinners in Sion have departed; trembling shall seize the ungodly. Who will tell you that a fire is kindled? Who will tell you of the eternal place? (Isaiah 33:14, LXX)

And do not fear those who kill the body but cannot kill the soul. But rather fear Him who is able to destroy both soul and body in hell. (Matthew 10:28, NKJV)

And anyone not found written in the Book of Life was cast into the lake of fire. (Revelation 22:15, NKJV)

But the cowardly, unbelieving, abominable, murderers, sexually immoral, sorcerers, idolaters, and all liars shall have their part in the lake which burns with fire and brimstone, which is the second death. (Revelation 21:8, NKJV)

Blessed are those who do His commandments, that they may have the right to the tree of life, and may enter through the gates into the city. But outside are dogs and sorcerers and sexually immoral and murderers and idolaters, and whoever loves and practices a lie. (Revelation 22:14,15, NKJV)

We need to remember that the Fire of Hell could also be our final abode if we refuse to demonstrate our faith in the practice of good deeds and the avoidance of evil deeds.

The next verse in this passage is verse 132.

And obey Allah and the Messenger; that ye may obtain mercy. (Koran 3:132, Yusuf Ali)

“And obey Allah and the Messenger.”

We are supposed to obey God and the Messenger. The Messenger is Muhammad. Muhammad did not receive any new revelations from God. In the 41st Surah, it says:

Nothing is said to you, [O Muhammad], except what was already said to the messengers before you. Indeed, your Lord is a possessor of forgiveness and a possessor of painful penalty. (Koran 41:43, Sahih International)

He was not an innovation among the Messengers of God. In the 46th Surah, it says:

Say: “I am not an innovation among the Messengers, and I know not what shall be done with me or with you. I only follow what is revealed to me; I am only a clear warner.” (Koran 46:9, Arberry)

In the Koran, it says that we should obey the Messengers of God.

And We did not send any messenger except to be obeyed by permission of Allah. (Koran 4:64, Sahih International)

Muhammad and the first generation Muslims obeyed the Messengers of God that preceded Muhammad.

The messenger believeth in that which hath been revealed unto him from his Lord and (so do) believers. Each one believeth in Allah and His angels and His Scriptures and His messengers –- We make no distinction between any of His messengers – and they say: We hear, and we obey. (Grant us) Thy forgiveness, our Lord. Unto Thee is the journeying. (Koran 2:285, Pickthall)

The Koran says that Muhammad is a good example to follow.

Verily in the Messenger of Allah ye have a good example for him who looketh unto Allah and the Last Day, and remembereth Allah much. (Koran 33:21, Pickthall)

If Muhammad believed in the messengers of God which preceded him and obeyed them, then we should do the same.

The first generation Muslims were the best community raised up for mankind.

Ye are the best community that hath been raised up for mankind. Ye enjoin right conduct and forbid indecency; and ye believe in Allah. (Koran 3:110, Pickthall)

If the first generation Muslims believed in the messengers of God which preceded Muhammad and obeyed them, then we should do the same.

Jesus is a Messenger of Allah. He told people to obey Him.

And (I come) confirming that which was before Me of the Torah, and to make lawful some of that which was forbidden unto you. I come unto you with a sign from your Lord, so keep your duty to Allah and obey Me. (Koran 3:50, Pickthall)

When Jesus came with clear proofs (of Allah’s Sovereignty), He said: I have come unto you with wisdom, and to make plain some of that concerning which ye differ. So keep your duty to Allah, and obey Me. (Koran 43:63, Pickthall)

He claimed that He spoke the words of God.

For I have not spoken on My own authority; but the Father who sent Me gave Me a command, what I should say and what I should speak. And I know that His command is everlasting life. Therefore, whatever I speak, just as the Father has told Me, so I speak. (John 12:49,50, NKJV)

Jesus answered and said to him, “If anyone loves Me, he will keep My word; and My Father will love him, and We will come to him and make Our home with him. He who does not love Me does not keep My words; and the word which you hear is not Mine but the Father’s who sent Me. (John 14:23,24, NKJV)

“That ye may obtain mercy.”

Jesus said:

Therefore be merciful, just as your Father also is merciful. (Luke 6:36, NKJV)

He also said:

Blessed are the merciful, for they shall obtain mercy. (Mattthew 5:7, NKJV)

St. James, who was either one of Jesus’ cousins or His stepbrother, was a disciple of Jesus. Jesus said that if we reject the message delivered to us by one of His disciples, then we reject Jesus. If we reject Jesus, then we also reject Allah the Father who sent Jesus. If we hear Jesus’ disciples, we hear Jesus. If we receive their teaching, we receive the teaching of Jesus which is the teaching of Allah.

He who hears you hears Me, he who rejects you rejects Me, and he who rejects Me rejects Him who sent Me. (Luke 10:16, NKJV)

He who receives you receives Me, and he who receives Me receives Him who sent Me. (Matthew 10:40, NKJV)

The Koran gives a stern warning to those who disbelieve Jesus and His disciples.

And [remember] when I inspired to the disciples, “Believe in Me and in My messenger Jesus.” They said, “We have believed, so bear witness that indeed we are Muslims [in submission to Allah].” [And remember] when the disciples said, “O Jesus, Son of Mary, can your Lord send down to us a table [spread with food] from the heaven? [Jesus] said, “Fear Allah , if you should be believers.” They said, “We wish to eat from it and let our hearts be reassured and know that you have been truthful to us and be among its witnesses.” Said Jesus, the Son of Mary, “O Allah , our Lord, send down to us a table [spread with food] from the heaven to be for us a festival for the first of us and the last of us and a sign from You. And provide for us, and You are the best of providers.” Allah said, “Indeed, I will send it down to you, but whoever disbelieves afterwards from among you — then indeed will I punish him with a punishment by which I have not punished anyone among the worlds. (Koran 5:111-115, Sahih International)

St. James wrote:

So speak and so do as those who will be judged by the law of liberty. For judgment is without mercy to the one who has shown no mercy. Mercy triumphs over judgment. (James 2:12,13, NKJV)

Those who are merciful to others will receive mercy from God. Those who are not merciful to others will receive no mercy from God.

I have seen on TV the lack of mercy that is being shown to innocent civilians in the Syrian Civil War. Syrian soldiers have used chemical weapons on unarmed civilians killing babies, children, and women as well as civilian men. Russian planes have bombed hospitals. There is a total lack of mercy being exhibited by these militaries. PISSI (the Pseudo-Islamic State of Syria and Iraq) has beheaded people and used innocent civilians as human shields. There is no mercy being displayed by this Pseudo-Islamic extremist organization. People who behave like this should not expect to receive mercy from God.

In the Old Testament, the Holy Prophets Solomon and Daniel said:

By alms and by faithful dealings sins are purged away. (Proverbs 15:27, LXX)

Therefore, O king, let my counsel please thee, and atone for thy sins by alms, and thine iniquities by compassion on the poor: it may be God will be long-suffering to thy trespasses. (Daniel 5:24, LXX; Daniel 4:27, Hebrew)

Giving alms to the poor is one way to show mercy. These acts of charity toward the poor are in stark contrast to the lender who lends money at interest. The Koran says:

If ye lend unto Allah a goodly loan, He will double it for you and will forgive you, for Allah is Responsive, Clement. (Koran 64:17, Pickthall)

The Bible agrees with the Koran. It says:

He that has pity on the poor lends to the Lord; and he will recompense to him according to his gift. (Proverbs 19:17, LXX)

Those who give to the poor lend to the Lord. That is what these verses from the Koran and the Bible teach.

The Holy Prophets Hosea and Micah taught us that God desires that we be merciful to others. God wants us to “love mercy.”

For I desire mercy and not sacrifice, and the knowledge of God more than burnt offerings. (Hosea 6:6, NKJV)

Has it not been told thee, O man, what is good? Or what does the Lord require of thee, but to do justice, and love mercy, and be ready to walk with the Lord thy God? (Micah 6:8, LXX)

Another way that we obtain mercy from God is through repentance and prayer.

Let the ungodly leave his ways, and the transgressor his counsels: and let him return to the Lord, and he shall find mercy; for He shall abundantly pardon your sins. (Isaiah 55:7, LXX)

Let us therefore come boldly to the throne of grace, that we may obtain mercy and find grace to help in time of need. (Hebrews 4:16, NKJV)

So, there are four things that we need to be doing in order to obtain mercy from God: being merciful to others, giving to the poor, repenting of our sins, and praying to God. The Koran says that we should obey Jesus and the other messengers of Allah. Therefore, we need to do those things that the messengers of Allah told us to do in the passages I just cited from the Bible.

The next verse in this passage is verse 133.

Be quick in the race for forgiveness from your Lord, and for a Garden whose width is that (of the whole) of the heavens and of the earth, prepared for the righteous,- (Koran 3:133, Yusuf Ali)

“Be quick in the race for forgiveness from your Lord.”

The Arabic verb translated “be quick in the race” is sāriʿū. It is a form 3 verb. Form three verbs indicate that someone else is present during the action of the verb or the action of the verb is reciprocal. In this verse, someone else is present during the action of the verb. This verb means “to hasten.” So, one is supposed to hasten while someone else is present. Pickthall translated the verb, “vie one with another.” I like Yusuf Ali’s translation. It is reminiscent of some passages in the New Testament which likens the Christian life to that of one running a race.

Therefore we also, since we are surrounded by so great a cloud of witnesses, let us lay aside every weight, and the sin which so easily ensnares us, and let us run with endurance the race that is set before us, looking unto Jesus, the author and finisher of our faith, who for the joy that was set before Him endured the cross, despising the shame, and has sat down at the right hand of the throne of God. (Hebrews 12:1,2, NKJV)

Do you not know that those who run in a race all run, but one receives the prize? Run in such a way that you may obtain it. And everyone who competes for the prize is temperate in all things. Now they do it to obtain a perishable crown, but we for an imperishable crown. Therefore I run thus: not with uncertainty. Thus I fight: not as one who beats the air. But I discipline my body and bring it into subjection, lest, when I have preached to others, I myself should become disqualified. (I Corinthians 9:24-27, NKJV)

One obtains forgiveness from God through prayer, repentance, and forgiving others. (Isaiah 55:7; Sirach 28:2; Matthew 6:14,15; 18:35; Mark 11:25,26; Luke 6:37; Acts 3:19; I John 1:9; Koran 3:89; 4:16,146; 16:119; 24:5,22) All of the righteous men and women who have died are watching us as we continue on in this race. That is what the words, “surrounded by so great a cloud of witnesses,” mean in Hebrews 12:1.

“And a Garden whose width is that (of the whole) of the heavens and of the earth, prepared for the righteous.”

This Garden might be a heavenly Paradise — one that is not of this world. Jesus told the repentant thief who was crucified next to Him.

Today you will be with Me in Paradise. (Luke 23:43, NKJV)

In the Book of Ezekiel, it says:

And the Word of the Lord came to me, saying, Son of man, take up a lamentation for the Prince of Tyre, and say to him, Thus saith the Lord God; Thou art a seal of resemblance, and crown of beauty. Thou wast in the delight of the Paradise of God; thou hast bound upon thee every precious stone, the sardius, and topaz, and emerald, and carbuncle, and sapphire, and jasper, and silver, and gold, and ligure, and agate, and amethyst, and chrysolite, and beryl, and onyx: and thou hast filled thy treasures and thy stores in thee with gold. From the day that thou wast created thou wast with the cherub: I set thee on the holy mount of God; thou wast in the midst of the stones of fire. Thou wast faultless in thy days, from the day that thou wast created, until iniquity was found in thee. (Ezekiel 28:11-15, LXX)

The Prince of Tyre is Satan. Satan once inhabited this heavenly Paradise. He sinned against God and lost his right to remain in Paradise. This heavenly Paradise is where the souls of the righteous go after they die.

The next verse in this passage is verse 134.

Those who spend (freely), whether in prosperity, or in adversity; who restrain anger, and pardon (all) men; — for Allah loves those who do good;- (Koran 3:134, Yusuf Ali)

“Those who spend (freely), whether in prosperity, or in adversity.”

Instead of saying “give,” the Koran frequently says “spend.” Whenever one gives to the poor and those in need, one is purchasing treasure in heaven. That is what Jesus told the rich, young ruler. So, then one is spending as if he were shopping when he gives.

Jesus said to him, “If you want to be perfect, go, sell what you have and give to the poor, and you will have treasure in heaven; and come, follow Me.” (Matthew 19:21, NKJV)

Jesus promised us that we would receive back more than we give.

Give, and it will be given to you: good measure, pressed down, shaken together, and running over will be put into your bosom. For with the same measure that you use, it will be measured back to you. (Luke 6:38, NKJV)

The Koran tells us to whom we are supposed to “spend.”

They ask thee, (O Muhammad), what they shall spend. Say: that which ye spend for good (must go) to parents and near kindred and orphans and the needy and the wayfarer. And whatsoever good ye do, lo! Allah is Aware of it. (Koran 2:215, Pickthall)

It also tells us how much we are supposed to “spend.”

They ask thee how much they are to spend; Say: “What is beyond your needs.” Thus doth Allah Make clear to you His Signs: In order that ye may consider. (Koran 2:219, Yusuf Ali)

In the Gospels, there is the example of the poor widow who gave all that she had.

Now Jesus sat opposite the treasury and saw how the people put money into the treasury. And many who were rich put in much. Then one poor widow came and threw in two mites, which make a quadrans. So He called His disciples to Himself and said to them, “Assuredly, I say to you that this poor widow has put in more than all those who have given to the treasury; for they all put in out of their abundance, but she out of her poverty put in all that she had, her whole livelihood.” (Mark 12:41-44, NKJV)

St. Paul told us to give in proportion to how much we have prospered.

Now concerning the collection for the saints, as I have given orders to the churches of Galatia, so you must do also: on the first day of the week let each one of you lay something aside, storing up as he may prosper, that there be no collections when I come. (I Corinthian 16:1,2, NKJV)

Maybe we cannot give our entire livelihood like the poor widow did, but we all should give what is beyond our needs in proportion to how much we have prospered. The Pharisees gave ten percent of what they have earned. (Matthew 23:23; Luke 18:12) We should give more.

For I say to you, that unless your righteousness exceeds the righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees, you will by no means enter the kingdom of heaven. (Matthew 5:20, NKJV)

St. Paul also said not to give out of compulsion. We should give willingly.

But this I say: He who sows sparingly will also reap sparingly, and he who sows bountifully will also reap bountifully. So let each one give as he purposes in his heart, not grudgingly or of necessity; for God loves a cheerful giver. (II Corithians 9:6,7, NKJV)

The Koran also teaches us that we should “spend” or give what we have earned. We should not  give to others something that we ourselves dislike or find disgusting.

O ye who believe! Spend of the good things which ye have earned, and of that which We bring forth from the earth for you, and seek not the bad (with intent) to spend thereof (in charity) when ye would not take it for yourselves save with disdain; and know that Allah is Absolute, Owner of Praise. (Koran 2:267, Pickthall)

Jesus told us to do our charitable deeds in secret and not in order to be seen by men.

Take heed that you do not do your charitable deeds before men, to be seen by them. Otherwise you have no reward from your Father in heaven. Therefore, when you do a charitable deed, do not sound a trumpet before you as the hypocrites do in the synagogues and in the streets, that they may have glory from men. Assuredly, I say to you, they have their reward. But when you do a charitable deed, do not let your left hand know what your right hand is doing, that your charitable deed may be in secret; and your Father who sees in secret will Himself reward you openly. (Matthew 6:1-4, NKJV)

We should give in prosperity or in adversity.

“Who restrain anger.”

The Bible has some teachings about anger.

“Be angry, and do not sin:” do not let the sun go down on your wrath, nor give place to the devil. (Ephesians 4:26,27, NKJV)

But I say to you that whoever is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgment. And whoever says to his brother, ‘Raca!’ shall be in danger of the council. But whoever says, ‘You fool!’ shall be in danger of hell fire. (Matthew 5:22, NKJV)

The Bible, like the Koran, says that we should restrain anger. There is legitimate anger. There is also illegitimate anger. Becoming angry because someone killed children and innocent civilians with chemical weapons is legitimate anger. Becoming angry with someone because he did not help commit a crime is illegitimate anger. Hatred, outbursts of wrath, and dissensions are some of the works of the flesh which if practiced, will bar one from inheriting the kingdom of God. (Galatians 5:19-21)

“And pardon all men.”

Once in the Old  Testament, four times in the Gospels, and twice in the Koran, the principal that God forgives those who forgive others is taught. That is a total of seven times.

Forgive thy neighbour the hurt that he hath done unto thee, so shall thy sins also be forgiven when thou prayest. (Sirach 28:2, KJV)

For if you forgive men their trespasses, your heavenly Father will also forgive you. But if you do not forgive men their trespasses, neither will your Father forgive your trespasses. (Matthew 6:14,15, NKJV)

“Therefore the kingdom of heaven is like a certain king who wanted to settle accounts with his servants. And when he had begun to settle accounts, one was brought to him who owed him ten thousand talents. But as he was not able to pay, his master commanded that he be sold, with his wife and children and all that he had, and that payment be made. The servant therefore fell down before him, saying, ‘Master, have patience with me, and I will pay you all.’ Then the master of that servant was moved with compassion, released him, and forgave him the debt. “But that servant went out and found one of his fellow servants who owed him a hundred denarii; and he laid hands on him and took him by the throat, saying, ‘Pay me what you owe!’ So his fellow servant fell down at his feet[d] and begged him, saying, ‘Have patience with me, and I will pay you all.’ And he would not, but went and threw him into prison till he should pay the debt. So when his fellow servants saw what had been done, they were very grieved, and came and told their master all that had been done. Then his master, after he had called him, said to him, ‘You wicked servant! I forgave you all that debt because you begged me. Should you not also have had compassion on your fellow servant, just as I had pity on you?’ And his master was angry, and delivered him to the torturers until he should pay all that was due to him. So My heavenly Father also will do to you if each of you, from his heart, does not forgive his brother his trespasses. (Matthew 18:23-35, NKJV)

And whenever you stand praying, if you have anything against anyone, forgive him, that your Father in heaven may also forgive you your trespasses. But if you do not forgive, neither will your Father in heaven forgive your trespasses. (Mark 11:25,26, NKJV)

Judge not, and you shall not be judged. Condemn not, and you shall not be condemned. Forgive, and you will be forgiven. (Luke 6:37, NKJV)

Let not those among you who are endued with grace and amplitude of means resolve by oath against helping their kinsmen, those in want, and those who have left their homes in Allah’s cause: let them forgive and overlook, do you not wish that Allah should forgive you? For Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. (Koran 24:22, Yusuf Ali)

O believers, among your wives and children there is an enemy to you; so beware of them. But if you pardon, and overlook, and if you forgive, surely God is All-forgiving, All-compassionate. (Koran 64:14, Arberry)

Since this teaching is taught seven times in the Scriptures of the Christians and Muslims, it must be a very important doctrine. We also have the examples of Jesus on the Cross and St. Stephen the Protomartyr. (Luke 23:34; Acts 7:59,60) Both asked God to forgive their enemies before they died.

The Koran has much to say about forgiving others.

Kind speech and forgiveness are better than charity followed by injury. And Allah is Free of need and Forbearing. (Koran 2:263, Sahih International)

Now whatever ye have been given is but a passing comfort for the life of the world, and that which Allah hath is better and more lasting for those who believe and put their trust in their Lord, and those who shun the worst of sins and indecencies and, when they are wroth, forgive, and those who answer the call of their Lord and establish worship, and whose affairs are a matter of counsel, and who spend of what We have bestowed on them, and those who, when great wrong is done to them, defend themselves [help themselves]. (Koran 42:36-39, Pickthall)

The recompense for an injury is an injury equal thereto (in degree): but if a person forgives and makes reconciliation, his reward is due from Allah: for (Allah) loveth not those who do wrong. (Koran 42:40, Yusuf Ali)

But surely he who bears patiently and is forgiving — surely that is true constancy. (Koran 42:43, Arberry)

Tell those who believe to forgive those who hope not for the days of Allah; in order that He may requite folk what they used to earn. (Koran 45:14, Pickthall)

“For Allah loves those who do good.”

Of course, God loves everyone. However, He does not love everyone in the same way. In Greek, there are four different words for love. Eros is sexual love. Agape is unconditional love. Philos is friendship love. Storge is natural affection for one’s relatives. Arabic, like English, does not have different words for the different kinds of love. It has only one word for love. When the Koran says, “Allah loves those who do good,” it is talking about friendship love (philos). God is a friend to those who do good.

In the Bible, Jesus said:

He who has My commandments and keeps them, it is he who loves Me. And he who loves Me will be loved by My Father, and I will love him and manifest Myself to him. (John 14:21, NKJV)

Jesus answered and said to him, “If anyone loves Me, he will keep My word; and My Father will love him, and We will come to him and make Our home with him.” (John 14:23, NKJV)

People who obey God, love God. Those who love God become aware of God’s love for them. So, those who do good are aware that God loves them.

Jesus also said:

You are My friends if you do whatever I command you. (John 15:14, NKJV)

St. James said:

Was not Abraham our father justified by works when he offered Isaac his son on the altar? Do you see that faith was working together with his works, and by works faith was made perfect? And the Scripture was fulfilled which says, “Abraham believed God, and it was accounted to him for righteousness.” And he was called the friend of God. (James 2:21-23, NKJV)

He also said:

Adulterers and adulteresses! Do you not know that friendship with the world is enmity with God? Whoever therefore wants to be a friend of the world makes himself an enemy of God. (James 4:4, NKJV)

When we obey God, we become friends of God. So, God loves those who do good as His friends. We should understand those words from the Koran in this way. Allah loves those who do good as His friends and they become aware of Allah’s love for them while doing good.

Now, let us look at verse 135.

And those who, having done something to be ashamed of, or wronged their own souls, earnestly bring Allah to mind, and ask for forgiveness for their sins, — and who can forgive sins except Allah? — and are never obstinate in persisting knowingly in (the wrong) they have done. (Koran 3:135, Yusuf Ali)

“And those who, having done something to be ashamed of, or wronged their own souls.”

Whenever we sin we wrong our own souls. The wages of sin is death, that is, the Second Death spoken of in the Book of Revelation. (Romans 6:23; Revelation 21:8)

“Earnestly bring Allah to mind, and ask for forgiveness for their sins.”

Those who repent become aware that God sees their sins and ask God to forgive them.

“And are never obstinate in persisting knowingly in the wrong they have done.”

Pickthall translated this part of this verse: “And will not knowingly repeat (the wrong) they did.”

Jesus told this parable in order to illustrate what true repentance consists of.

“But what do you think? A man had two sons, and he came to the first and said, ‘Son, go, work today in my vineyard.’ He answered and said, ‘I will not,’ but afterward he regretted it and went. Then he came to the second and said likewise. And he answered and said, ‘I go, sir,’ but he did not go. Which of the two did the will of his father?” They said to Him, “The first.” Jesus said to them, “Assuredly, I say to you that tax collectors and harlots enter the kingdom of God before you. For John came to you in the way of righteousness, and you did not believe him; but tax collectors and harlots believed him; and when you saw it, you did not afterward relent and believe him.” (Matthew 21:28-32, NKJV)

The one who does the will of God after repenting is the true repenter. The one who says he repents but persists in doing the same deeds over again did not genuinely repent. Repentance brings about a change in behavior.

St. John the Baptist said:

Therefore bear fruits worthy of repentance. (Matthew 3:8, NKJV)

The fruits worthy of repentance are a change in behavior resulting in one doing good and abstaining from evil.

“And who can forgive sins except Allah?”

Here is proof from the Koran that Jesus is Allah. The Koran says:

Let the people of the Gospel judge by that which Allah hath revealed therein. (Koran 5:47, Pickthall)

So, I have read in the Koran that only God (Allah) can forgive sins. Now, in the Gospel according to St. Mark, there is this account of Jesus performing a miracle.

Then they came to Him, bringing a paralytic who was carried by four men. And when they could not come near Him because of the crowd, they uncovered the roof where He was. So when they had broken through, they let down the bed on which the paralytic was lying. When Jesus saw their faith, He said to the paralytic, “Son, your sins are forgiven you.” And some of the scribes were sitting there and reasoning in their hearts, “Why does this Man speak blasphemies like this? Who can forgive sins but God alone?” But immediately, when Jesus perceived in His spirit that they reasoned thus within themselves, He said to them, “Why do you reason about these things in your hearts? Which is easier, to say to the paralytic, ‘Your sins are forgiven you,’ or to say, ‘Arise, take up your bed and walk’? But that you may know that the Son of Man has power on earth to forgive sins” — He said to the paralytic, “I say to you, arise, take up your bed, and go to your house.” Immediately he arose, took up the bed, and went out in the presence of them all, so that all were amazed and glorified God, saying, “We never saw anything like this!” (Mark 12:3-12, NKJV)

The Jewish scribes were thinking in their hearts that Jesus was speaking blasphemies when He told the paralytic that His sins were forgiven. Only God can forgive sins. Jesus said that He had power (that is, authority) on earth to forgive sins. He told the man to take up His bed and walk. The man did that. He was healed because his sins were forgiven. If Jesus can forgive sins and only God can do that, then Jesus is God (Allah).

Now, for the last verse in this passage, verse 136.

For such the reward is forgiveness from their Lord, and Gardens with rivers flowing underneath, —  an eternal dwelling: How excellent a recompense for those who work (and strive)! (Koran 3:136, Yusuf Ali)

“For such the reward is forgiveness from their Lord.”

This means that on the Day of Judgment those who have given to the needy and the poor, restrained their anger, and forgiven others will be acquitted.

Remember the words of Jesus in the Gospels.

“Then the King will say to those on His right hand, ‘Come, you blessed of My Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world: for I was hungry and you gave Me food; I was thirsty and you gave Me drink; I was a stranger and you took Me in;  I was naked and you clothed Me; I was sick and you visited Me; I was in prison and you came to Me.’ Then the righteous will answer Him, saying, ‘Lord, when did we see You hungry and feed You, or thirsty and give You drink? When did we see You a stranger and take You in, or naked and clothe You? Or when did we see You sick, or in prison, and come to You?’ And the King will answer and say to them, ‘Assuredly, I say to you, inasmuch as you did it to one of the least of these My brethren, you did it to Me.’” (Matthew 25:34-40, NKJV)

People who help others are the kind of people who will inherit the Kingdom of God. So, the Koran confirms the Gospel. (See Koran 3:3,4.) It teaches the same thing, but in different words. However, one must also restrain his anger and forgive others who have wronged him.

In the Bible, it says:

In Him we have redemption through His blood, the forgiveness of sins, according to the riches of His grace. (Ephesians 1:7, NKJV)

In whom we have redemption through His blood, the forgiveness of sins. (Colossians 1:14, NKJV)

Jesus is our sacrifice for sins. We have redemption through His blood.

“And Gardens with rivers flowing underneath, —  an eternal dwelling.”

The Bible teaches that there will be a New Heaven and a New Earth. We will not have a different Heaven and Earth than we have already. We will have this one which has been renewed. “The Earth abides forever.” (Ecclesiastes 1:4) “The meek shall inherit the Earth.” (Psalm 37:11; Matthew 5:5) So, the inheritance of the righteous is this Earth after it has been renewed.

In Isaiah, there are prophecies about the Earth becoming a Paradise.

Then shall there be rain to the seed of thy land; and the bread of the fruit of thy land shall be plenteous and rich: and thy cattle shall feed in that day in a fertile and spacious place. Your bulls and your oxen that till the ground, shall eat chaff mixed with winnowed barley. And there shall be upon every lofty mountain and upon every high hill, water running in that day, when many shall perish, and when the towers shall fall. And the light of the moon shall be as the light of the sun, and the light of the sun shall be sevenfold in the day when the Lord shall heal the breach of his people, and shall heal the pain of thy wound. (Isaiah 30:23-26, LXX)

Behold the city of Sion, our refuge: thine eyes shall behold Jerusalem, a rich city, tabernacles which shall not be shaken, neither shall the pins of her tabernacle be moved for ever, neither shall her cords be at all broken: for the name of the Lord is great to you: ye shall have a place, even rivers and wide and spacious channels: thou shalt not go this way, neither a vessel with oars go thereby. For my God is great: the Lord our judge shall not pass me by: the Lord is our prince, the Lord is our king; the Lord, He shall save us. (Isaiah 33:20-22, LXX)

Be glad, thou thirsty desert: let the wilderness exult, and flower as the lily. And the desert places of Jordan shall blossom and rejoice; the glory of Libanus has been given to it, and the honour of Carmel; and My people shall see the glory of the Lord, and the majesty of God. (Isaiah 35:1,2, LXX)

Then shall the lame man leap as an hart, and the tongue of the stammerers shall speak plainly; for water has burst forth in the desert, and a channel of water in a thirsty land. And the dry land shall become pools, and a fountain of water shall be poured into the thirsty land; there shall there be a joy of birds, ready habitations and marshes. (Isaiah 35:6,7, LXX)

But I will open rivers on the mountains, and fountains in the midst of plains: I will make the desert pools of water, and a thirsty land watercourses. I will plant in the dry land the cedar and box, the myrtle and cypress, and white poplar: that they may see, and know, and perceive, and understand together, that the hand of the Lord has wrought these works, and the Holy One of Israel has displayed them. (Isaiah 41:18-20, LXX)

Remember ye not the former things, and consider not the ancient things. Behold, I will do new things, which shall presently spring forth, and ye shall know them: and I will make a way in the wilderness, and rivers in the dry land. The beasts of the field shall bless Me, the owls and young ostriches; for I have given water in the wilderness, and rivers in the dry land, to give drink to My chosen race, My people whom I have preserved to tell forth My praises. (Isaiah 43:18-21, LXX)

And now I will comfort thee, O Sion: and I have comforted all her desert places; and I will make her desert places as a garden, and her western places as the garden of the Lord; they shall find in her gladness and exultation, thanksgiving and the voice of praise. (Isaiah 51:3, LXX)

God will turn the desert places of this world into fertile plains and forests. There will be more rivers running through the arid regions of this planet.

“How excellent a recompense for those who work (and strive)!”

Yes, the afterlife will be a most blessed existence for those who inherit the Kingdom of God. These words from St. Paul’s Epistle to the Romans conclude my exegesis of this passage from the Koran.

But in accordance with your hardness and your impenitent heart you are treasuring up for yourself wrath in the day of wrath and revelation of the righteous judgment of God, who “will render to each one according to his deeds”: eternal life to those who by patient continuance in doing good seek for glory, honor, and immortality; but to those who are self-seeking and do not obey the truth, but obey unrighteousness — indignation and wrath, tribulation and anguish, on every soul of man who does evil, of the Jew first and also of the Greek; but glory, honor, and peace to everyone who works what is good, to the Jew first and also to the Greek. For there is no partiality with God. (Romans 2:5-11, NKJV)

Salvation is a paradox. It is a gift. We cannot earn it, but we must still work for it.

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Houris and Some False Hadiths

April 15, 2017 Leave a comment

 

There is a popular rumor that Muslim men believe that if they blow themselves up and kill a lot of Jews and Christians while doing so, they will receive 72 virgins in Paradise. There is much criticism among Christians about Muslims having such an overly sensual view of life in the hereafter. Some of these views are based on hadiths written down over 200 years after the death of the Islamic prophet. Some of these views are based on verses from the Koran. Actually, many of the views of Muslims regarding wives in the afterlife contradict the Koran. The hadiths upon which they base these beliefs are innovations and fabrications. They should not be trusted.

The Arabic word, hurun, appears four times in the Koran. It is usually translated “companions” or “houris.” Pickthall translated the word “fair ones.” From the context of the passages in which this word occurs, it appears that these “houris” will be spouses of those who are allowed to enter Paradise. Here are the four Koranic passages about houris.

Even so (it will be). And We shall wed them unto fair ones with wide, lovely eyes. (Koran 44:54, Pickthall)

Reclining on ranged couches. And We wed them unto fair ones with wide, lovely eyes. (Koran 52:20, Pickthall)

Wherein (are found) the good and beautiful –
Which is it, of the favours of your Lord, that ye deny? –
Fair ones, close-guarded in pavilions –
Which is it, of the favours of your Lord, that ye deny? –
Whom neither man nor jinni will have touched before them –
Which is it, of the favours of your Lord, that ye deny?
Reclining on green cushions and fair carpets.
Which is it, of the favours of your Lord, that ye deny? (Koran 55:70-77, Pickthall)

And (there are) fair ones with wide, lovely eyes, like unto hidden pearls, reward for what they used to do. (Koran 56:22-24, Pickthall)

Muslims have different explanations regarding these houris. Irshad Manji, a progressive Muslim, thinks that the houris are raisins. Here is a video showing an interview that she had on CNN.

 David Wood, a critic of Islam, produced a video ostracizing this interpretation of this Arabic word.

 A Koranist, on the other hand, produced a video which supports Irshad Manji’s interpretation.

There is a hadith that says that martyred Muslim men will receive 72 wives in Paradise. It is in Sunan ibn Majah.

It was narrated from Abu Umamah that the Messenger of Allah  said:
“There is no one whom Allah will admit to Paradise but Allah will marry him to seventy-two wives, two from houris and seventy from his inheritance from the people of Hell, all of whom will have desirable front passages and he will have a male member that never becomes flaccid (i.e., soft and limp).”  (Sunan ibn Majah , Vol. 5, Book 37, Hadith 4337)

This hadith is graded daif. It is weak and Muslims are supposed to ignore the weak hadiths and not base interpretations of the Koran on them. (I think that all of the hadiths are hearsay. I do not trust any of them.)

According to the passage in Koran 55:70-77, the houris have never been touched by man or jinni. They are virgins. The number of the houris each Muslim will receive is really not given in the Koran.

There are two hadiths in Sahih al-Bukhari about houris.

Narrated Abu Huraira:  The Prophet said, “The first batch (of people) who will enter Paradise will be (glittering) like the full moon, and the batch next to them will be (glittering) like the most brilliant star in the sky. Their hearts will be as if the heart of a single man, for they will have neither enmity nor jealousy amongst themselves; everyone will have two wives from the houris, (who will be so beautiful, pure and transparent that) the marrow of the bones of their legs will be seen through the bones and the flesh.” (Sahih al-Bukhari 3254)

Narrated Abu Huraira:  Allah’s Messenger said, “The first group of people who will enter Paradise, will be glittering like the full moon and those who will follow them, will glitter like the most brilliant star in the sky. They will not urinate, relieve nature, spit, or have any nasal secretions. Their combs will be of gold, and their sweat will smell like musk. The aloes-wood will be used in their centers. Their wives will be houris. All of them will look alike and will resemble their father Adam (in stature), sixty cubits tall.” (Sahih al-Bukhari 3327)

Both of these hadiths are rated sahih, that is, authentic, by the compiler. However, these hadiths teach things that are not found in either the Koran or the Bible. They are innovations and fabrications and not revelations from God. The houris described in these hadiths are not human. The Koran says:

Nothing is said to you, [O Muhammad], except what was already said to the messengers before you. Indeed, your Lord is a possessor of forgiveness and a possessor of painful penalty. (Koran 41:43, Sahih International)

Say: “I am not an innovation among the Messengers, and I know not what shall be done with me or with you. I only follow what is revealed to me; I am only a clear warner.” (Koran 46:9, Arberry)

And unto thee have We revealed the Scripture with the truth, confirming whatever Scripture was before it, and a watcher over it. (Koran 5:48, Pickthall)

Since these verses contain teachings not found in any prior revelations (i.e., the Bible), they are not authentic. They should be ignored along with the hadiths that are graded daif.

There are Muslims who actually believe these hadiths.

 I do not think that men and women will live in separate homes. I believe that every man will have a woman to live with and every woman will have a man to live with. (Read Genesis 2:18 and I Corinthians 11:9.) I believe that Christ’s response to the Sadducees is not a prohibition against a man cohabiting with a woman in the afterlife. (See Luke 20:27-38 in a modern translation, like the New King James Version, for example.) Christ was either talking about levirate marriages (Deuteronomy 25:5,6) or some other system will replace marriage. (The only time a son can be given in marriage is in a levirate marriage. Read Genesis 38.)

I think that the houris in the Koran are resurrected human women who are virgins. Actually, when you think about it, all the resurrected righteous women will be resurrected with virgin bodies. So, a houri is simply a resurrected righteous woman.

There are two heresies regarding the afterlife: the Encratite heresy and the Cerinthean heresy. The Encratites over-spiritualized the afterlife. Many Christians tend to gravitate toward the Encratite heresy. The Cerintheans over-emphasized carnal pleasures in the afterlife. Many Muslims tend to gravitate toward the Cerinthean position.

Here is Nouman Ali Khan’s opinion about the afterlife.

God has given us all things to enjoy. (I Timothy 6:17) However, we should never be “lovers of pleasure rather than lovers of God.” (II Timothy 3:4)

The Koran teaches that God is better than the life of this world.

Beautified for mankind is love of the joys (that come) from women and offspring; and stored-up heaps of gold and silver, and horses branded (with their mark), and cattle and land. That is comfort of the life of the world. Allah! With Him is a more excellent abode. (Koran 3:14, Pickthall)

Compare these words from the Psalms.

For what have I in heaven but Thee? and what have I desired upon the earth beside Thee? My heart and my flesh have failed: but God is the strength of my heart, and God is my portion for ever. (Psalm 72:25,26, LXX; Psalm 73:25,26, Hebrew)

The Koran teaches us to seek the life of the hereafter.

Whoso disbelieveth in Allah after his belief – save him who is forced thereto and whose heart is still content with the Faith – but whoso findeth ease in disbelief: On them is wrath from Allah. Theirs will be an awful doom. That is because they have chosen the life of the world rather than the Hereafter, and because Allah guideth not the disbelieving folk. (Koran 16:106,107, Pickthall)

No soul can ever die except by Allah’s leave and at a term appointed. Whoso desireth the reward of the world, We bestow on him thereof; and whoso desireth the reward of the Hereafter, We bestow on him thereof. We shall reward the thankful. (Koran 3:145, Pickthall)

And seek by means of what Allah has given you the future abode, and do not neglect your portion of this world, and do good (to others) as Allah has done good to you, and do not seek to make mischief in the land, surely Allah does not love the mischief-makers. (Koran 28:77, Shakir)

Compare Christ’s words:

For where your treasure is, there your heart will be also. (Matthew 6:21, NKJV)

But seek first the kingdom of God and His righteousness, and all these things shall be added unto you. (Matthew 6:33, NKJV)

Although the resurrected righteous will be able to enjoy various pleasures in the afterlife (See Isaiah 65:21-23.), they will love God more than the carnal pleasures. God does not save people from idolatry so that they can spend forever lapsing back into idolatry. Those who love carnal pleasures more than God have made carnal pleasures their god. So, in the afterlife the righteous will enjoy God’s creation and various pleasures, but will not love pleasures more than God. People in the kingdom of God in the age to come will not practice such sins as fornication, adultery, and gluttony. God does not save people from sin so that they can lapse back into sin and indulge in it.

There needs to be a balanced view of the afterlife. I believe every man will  have a woman and every woman a man. No one will live alone in a big house playing a harp all day, nor will people become members of a perpetual choir. They will be involved in various activities, such as building houses and planting vineyards. They will pray and worship God, too.

The houris in the Koran are human women. They are not the non-human women described in the hadiths. As for sex, that is the first commandment in the Bible, right? (See Genesis 1:28.) Sex is not evil. People have perverted it and made the practice of sex evil. They have broken the rules which accompany sex. (Adultery and fornication are evil. Marital sex is not evil.) The Encratites taught that sex is intrinsically evil. People who view sex as intrinsically evil are adhering to the Encratite heresy.

Muslims and even Jews say that men and women will make love in the afterlife. Christians are afraid to say such things. Maybe they fear being labeled a Cerinthean. So, they pretend to be an Encratite. Of course, unbelievers usually already have their minds in the gutter. So, they think of the grossest, most vulgar things whenever someone mentions the possibility of love-making in the afterlife. There are plenty of videos on Youtube about men and women living together in the afterlife and even having children. These have been uploaded by Muslims and not Christians. Some Christians, however, are starting to dialogue about this subject on the internet. I have seen this sort of dialogue on Roman Catholic and Lutheran sites. Other Protestants have dialogued about this subject as well. (If you search hard enough, you will find forums on the internet where Christians are dialoguing about this subject.)

To conclude, the hadiths I cited in this blog post are false hadiths. Muhammad was not an innovator among the messengers of God, nor did he receive any new revelations from God that were different from the revelations received by previous messengers. (Koran 41:43; 46:9) Those hadiths contain innovations which were not taught in the Bible. Therefore, they are false. Woman was created for man (I Corinthians 11:9) and it is not good for man to be alone. (Genesis 2:18) It is reasonable to assume, therefore, that every man will live with a woman and every woman will live with a man in the age to come. In the afterlife, the righteous will enjoy various pleasures, but they will not love any pleasure more than God. Christians often lean toward the Encratite heresy when they talk about the afterlife. Muslims often lean toward the Cerinthean heresy when they talk about the afterlife. The correct view of the afterlife lies somewhere between these two heresies.